Implications of Impression Management Strategies
It is possible to use impression management strategies as a way of enhancing performance management both in non-bureaucratic and bureaucratic organizations. These are strategies that people put forth so that they can communicate image in social interactions (Giacalone & Rosenfeld, 2013).
Among the available strategies for impression managements include self-promotion, intimidation, supplication, exemplification and ingratiation. The strategies can have either positive or unhelpful outcomes depending on the strategy’s character (Gardener, 1988). For example, supplication and intimidation strategies usually have negative impact on performance in both non-bureaucratic and bureaucratic organizations. Other strategies conversely impact on organizational performance positively (Gordon, 1996).
Impression management acts as a significant aspect of professional and social life. In the professional life, strategies of impression management assist organizations in accomplishing corporate goals. Every individual wants to create a unique social identity through the creation of a positive impression. Therefore, managers manage impressions through the selection of the right employees for the organizations (Schlenker, 1980).
Managers determine the individual’s capabilities using non-verbal and verbal strategies. Posture, gestures, and facial expressions are some of the non-verbal strategies used by manager to evaluate individual’s capabilities. These expressions are matched with individual information to ensure that the company hires qualified persons and this enhances performance (DuBrin, 2010).
Success is enhanced by impression management because it ensures effective interaction of employees (Cohen & Bailey, 1997). Usually, organizations accomplish different organizational tasks by using team players. Impression management may also help in augmenting success rate for the team (Schneider & Smith, 2004).
Individuals within the organization influence one another with the created impressions. Some organizations create positive impressions which enhance performance. For example, using self-promotion as a strategy enhances performance of individuals in organizations because it promotes high self-esteem as well as the establishment of the desired qualities that include competence (Higgins, 1992). The impression causes better performance because it influences members of the team to expect positive results (Verma et al. 2008).
Although using impression management is in favor of performance of the entire organization, it can cause a reduced performance. Promoters of negative strategies in performance risk poor performance (Porter et al. 2003). An example of this is individuals who promote supplication who might become lazy and demanding. The effect of this is underperformance. Individuals who promote intimidation are also likely to arouse poor performance and fear. Positive strategies can also backfire and cause a reduction in productivity (Gardener, 1988). For example, ingratiation can cause sycophancy which may produce workers who conform to every opinion. Eventually, this has a negative impact on performance (Krauster, 2009).
Impression management provides a nice means that can be used in evaluating a person’s behavior. While completing this assignment, I acquired a great opportunity for realizing different strategies that I used in enhancing my school performance both unconsciously and consciously (Barsness et al. 2005). For example, I always have a modest and decent dress code. This creates the impression that I am serious in my studies (DePaulo, 1992). Other people with whom I interact are influenced by the way I dress. Usually, I am surrounded by like-minded persons (Higgins & Judge, 2004). This has helped in creating my identity.
While interacting with professors, I usually present an ingratiation impression. Thus, majority of the professors that I interact with view me as a likeable person. I am aware that this has an influence on how they approach my performance. Nevertheless, some colleagues despise me due to this factor. They view me as a sycophant and therefore, their enemy (Blickle, 2003). Additionally, I present self-promotion impression strategy. This is one of the most challenging management strategies that I present because it presents some negative results. In maintaining this impression, my impression is that I can achieve every task (Schlenker, 2003). My performance is enhanced by this strategy because I remain competent in handling class work. In turn, this earns me respect from colleagues.
Impression management assists me in acquiring a feeling of identity. I exhibit the impression that gives other people the notion of my real self. This influences the perception of other people towards me as well as what they expect from me. For example, my colleagues in class consider me a sycophant. My professors view me as a hardworking person (Bolino et al. 2006). This is dependent on the level of different strategies of managing impression that I present. I also consider myself as a person who is competent. This enhances my self-esteem. As such I consider myself as a very confident individual and this makes it easy for me to attempt new things due to my strategy of managing impressions (Bromley, 1993).
Since I am likeable, I find creating new friends in the university very easy. I know the importance of balancing harmful and negative impact that the strategies of impression management may have (Cunningham, 2013). To achieve this, I emphasize positive results of every strategy and suppress negative results of the strategies that I apply (Turnley & Bolino, 2001). It is important to achieve this balance because it enables me to reach greater heights academically while establishing quality relationships.
Barsness, Z. I., Diekmann, K. A., & Seidel, M.-D. L., 2005. Motivation and opportunity: the role of remote work, demographic dissimilarity, and social network centrality in impression management. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), 401-419.
Blickle, Gerhard, 2003. Some Outcomes of Pressure, Ingratiation, and Rational Persuasion Used With Peers in the Workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 33 Issue 3, page 648-665
Bolino, M. C., Varela, J. A., Bande, B. N., & Turnley, W. H. 2006. The impact of impression-management tactics on supervisor ratings of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 281-297.
Bromley, D. B. 1993. Reputation, image and impression management. Chichester u.a, Wiley.
Cohen, G., & Bailey, A. 1997. What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite. Journal of management, 23(3), 239.
Cunningham, C. 2013. Social networking and impression management: self-presentation in the digital age. Lanham, Lexington Books.
Depaulo, B. M. 1992. Nonverbal behavior and self-presentation. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 203-243.
Dubrin, A. 2010. Impression management in the workplace: research, theory, and practice. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Gardner, L., & Martinko, J. 1988. Impression Management in organizations. Journal of Management, 14(2), 321-338.
Giacalone, R. & Rosenfeld, P. 2013. Impression management in the organization. New York: Psychology Press.
Gordon, R. A. 1996. Impact of ingratiation on judgments and evaluations: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 54-70
Higgins, C. A., & Judge, T. A. 2004. The effect of applicant influence tactics on recruiter perceptions of fit and hiring recommendations: A field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 622-632.
Higgins, E. T., 1992. Achieving ‘shared reality’ in the communication game: A social action that creates meaning. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 11, 107-131.
Krausert, A. 2009. Performance management for different employee groups a contribution to employment systems theory. Berlin, Physica-Verlag.
Porter, L. W., Angle, H. L., & Allen, R. W. 2003. Organizational influence processes. Armonk, NY, M.E. Sharpe.
Schlenker, B. R. 2003. Self-presentation. In M. R. Leary and J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 492-518). New York: Guilford.
Schlenker, B. R. 1980. Impression management: The self-concept, social identity, and interpersonal relations. Monterey: Brooks/Cole. (pp. 75-85)
Schneider, B. & Smith B. 2004. Personality and organizations. New York: Psychology Press.
Turnley, W. H., & Bolino, M. C. 2001. Achieving desired images while avoiding undesired images: Exploring the role of self-monitoring in impression management. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 351-360.
Varma, A., Budhwar, P., & Denisi, A. 2008. Performance management systems: A global perspective. New York: Routledge.