Valeria Lukyanova

Business Studies Essay on Literature Review

Literature Review: Management and Leadership


Business organizations are in endless quest of converting their executives into leaders as well as aides into followers. A manager runs from a power platform, whereas a leader develops a framework of impact so as to spur and inspire (Vera &Crossan, 2004, p. 230). However, companies need to have a parity when it comes to executive abilities as well as leadership growth. Even though most companies utilize huge amounts of funds to grow leaders, majority of them utilize unsuccessful strategies whose outcomes are not measurable. As stated by Ladyshewsky (2007, p. 426), only among 10% to 15 % of these programs lead to increased competence as well as better and quality work. This paper reviews the different difficulties that companies face in governance as well as how to handle them. The planned configuration of a company can as well be an essential facet in leadership growth as it ascertains the culture of the organization as well as corresponding data filters. This paper summaries the positions of numerous learners on these three leadership as well as management matters.

The balance between leadership and management

As stated by Bolden et al (2003), the comprehension and theory of leadership has gone through evolution over the last seven decades from the times of brave leaders to these days of revolutionary leaders. For the same duration, it has been essential to fathom and also set apart leadership from management so as to discover a parity to aid in meeting the organizational combined effects. In line with Tamkin, Hillage&Willison (2002, p. 56), the managers of a company undertake important leadership functions that aid in the growth and conveyance of the performance of personnel and companies. Tamkin, Hillage&Willison highlight that so as for the managers to be proficient, they need a collection of management abilities. As said by Cristiana, &Anca (2013, p. 1573), management alludes to the competence of achieving joint performance by utilizing common principles, objectives, suitable plans as well as training of staffs. The typical platforms of management incorporate abilities like problem solving, regulating, planning, strategizing as well as directing.  Denis, Lamothe, & Langley (2001, p. 809) suggest that companies that provide managers the obligation of placing structures as well as procedure in the right place and guaranteeing their functionality. Managing individuals entails living in the present as well as promoting firmness.

In contrast, leadership alludes to the capability of an individual to impact others to act in a way that leads to the recognition of business goals. In accordance with Salleh, & Grunewald (2013, p. 9- 20), the core aspects of leaders are offering meaning as well as guidelines to followers, making funds, compelling dangers and spurring hope. Leaders nurture the assurance that all shall be well and it is easy to attain success. As a result, the drive of a leader is the individuals close to him or her. The focus of a leader is how to inspire as well as spur followers to be involved in the activities of the company. Leading people entails pursuing invention and examining the future.

In line with Franken, Edwards& Lambert (2009, p. 49), majority of the modern companies are under-governed as well as over-ruled. The main concern of the topmost managements is to make sure that things are done aptly whereas ignoring whether the things the company is engaged in are correct. Nevertheless, so as to turn into a helpful manager, an individual has to grow the boldness and capability of a leader (Bongjin, Burns, & Prescott 2009, p. 728). Many companies are about regulations, plans and structures whereas overlooking individuals drive, creativity and innovation, which are crucial determining factors of a company’s performance. In line with Raes et al (2011, p. 102- 126), poor managerial interaction is symbolic to the lack of governance. The outcome is the formation of a superior organizational culture that overlooks the participation of the subordinate workers. However, organizational triumph as well relies on many other non-people factors. When the company is solitary focused on leading as well as the future, it can easily lose concentration of what has to be undertaken in the present-day (Capozzi, Kellen, &Smit, 2012, p. 8).

So as to attain organization feat as well as grasp the set goals, the top administration of a company ought to apprehend a parity between governance and management. As stated by Mihalache et al (2012, p. 1480), this well-calculated alteration is top-bottom and sets in when administrators become insightful of the effect of their deeds on juniors. This is a sentimental mandate of the fact that individuals are not fruitful when they are seen as machines.

McNally (2014, p. 17) contends that the most fruitful workers are those who derive their daily involvements at work. As a result, it is the duty of the company senior governance to spur employees as well as develop meaning in the job. Nevertheless, so as to cause intrinsic inspiration, Johnson et al (2012, p. 555) highlights that managers have to be easy to recognize as the most capable and experienced workers. This requires for ongoing growth as well as training of administrators. Executives with inventive abilities and sentimental capabilities know how to guide as well a handle issues.

Leadership development

Companies use a lot of funds and time in the struggle to enhance the abilities of their executives and foster leaders. In line with Galvin et al (2014, p. 35-60), organizations in the U.S utilize estimated 14 billion USD annually on programs of governance growth. Learning institutions provide governance program for a cost of up to 150,000 USD per head.

The first mistake in governance is disregarding context. Hopkins, Mallette, & Hopkins (2013, p. 77) contend that even a bright leader will not excel in all circumstances and changing contexts. Most of the courses are blanket that ought to fit every person. Sanders &Davey (2011, p. 41) highlights that these courses suggest that the same governance style as well as abilities are suitable in spite of the plan as well as the culture of the company and the obligation of the C.E.O. the company ought to briefly look at the demands of the corporation that the course focuses on accomplishing. Keeping in viewpoint, the company may have to prepare its managers with a number of abilities and will considerably enhance performance. Nevertheless, what many courses provide are a set of standards of leaders, many abilities to learn, as well as different administrative standards statements. Nevertheless, by figuring out the simple but operational objectives such as offering better abilities as well as high-quality policy making, the results are more improved (Pienaar, 2010, p. 280).

The other point is that, governance programs ought to nurture thinking and present a chance to acquire more exposure from actual work. In line with Frisch (2011, p. 104), most offline lessons provided in universities are not helpful as learners only remember less than 10% of the material. As a result, thinking turns out to be an essential part in governance that focuses on rushing the launch of commodities, designing promotion strategies, as well as offering openings for individual growth amongst contributors. In addition, Nickerson, Yen & Mahoney (2012, p. 52) affirm that scholars ought to have the opportunity to apply the outcomes of their thinking at workplace.

The third point is that, majority of the companies do not excel in governance expansion as they misjudge the mind-sets of the individuals involved. Companies know that so as to develop frontrunners, a developmental alteration is unescapable. Nevertheless, they are not eager to take the next step and ascertain why executives carry themselves in particular manners. This facet may wreak uneasiness to instructors, learners as well as executives equally.  Nevertheless, in circumstances where the uneasiness is manageable and negligible, programs ought to try and aid contributors and workers comprehend their bosses’ fundamental plans. For instance, it has been found out that an individual’s capability to represent describes how they can lead at ease. Nevertheless, the individual in question may be quite governing and is not set to lose control. Helping an individual to come to his or her senses requires a lot a lot of time in coming up with programs that work (Kanengieter&Rajagopal-Durbin, 2012; Nickerson, Yen & Mahoney, 2012).

Last of all, majority of companies do not shine when it comes to governance as they are not competent enough to measure the merits of their programs. In many instances, the programs culminate with the contributor responding to the company. In line with Hansen (2013, p. 14), scholars have improved the art of offering learners with exercises that are less challenging so as to get positive appraisals. Rather than, organizations ought to take on a strategy where they can observe the developmental alteration of their leaders as well as how they are growing their careers. In addition, when the learning process is related to one of the company’s development plans, the corporation ought to struggle to ascertain how the learning has impacted the business (Senn, Thoma, & Yip 2013, p. 27).

Planned configuration of companies and enhancing administration as well as governance growth. In line with Hsieh &Yik (2005), companies can develop the administration’s absorptive capacity by changing the competences of their bosses or providing endless learning from the topmost managers. The tactical configuration of a company ascertains its capability to pinpoint, enroll and pack together administrative abilities when considering present transactions.  A number of the facets that impact the tactical configuration of a company incorporate the present approach, the special requirements for administrative abilities, realistic know-how of the rivalry, as well as network access.

For example, in one company, the ability to make and be able to grow and also study association to ascertain its administrative human capital. In another firm, the main administrative asset may be exposure in generating systems and infrastructure for backing authorization networks. Even though the human capital of the administrations of these two teams are both respected, they cannot interchange places due to the specialization in the company’s planned configurations (Vera &Crossan, 2004, p. 222- 240). However, there are general abilities that are easy to denote amongst majority of administrative groups (Kaufman, 2012, p. 12 -36). These incorporates abilities like group building, networking, collaborating as well as entrepreneurial abilities for instance, understanding as well as scanning data and recognizing new openings. These abilities are a role of analytical, cognitive and creative skills of an administrator contrasting the organization’s planned alignment.  Nevertheless, in spite of their worth, general skills fail to replace professional aptitudes.

As stated by Darling (2007, p. 77), the tactical track of a company defines its leading judgment. As a result, in the course of the procedure of employing as well as merging psychological theories and administrative capital, managers utilize individual verdict and creativity in figuring out which alterations they expect in the leading judgment of the company. If the chief manager needs this logic to go on, he or she will enroll an administrative that strongly suits into the desires of this judgment so as to make most of the success of execution (Schoemaker, Krupp, & Howland, 2013, p. 113). Contrarily, if the chief executive desires a change in the prevalent administrative judgment, he or she picks an ability profile in a way that will offer the company change as well as development in its next stages. Nevertheless, even in most circumstances when C.E.Os are anticipating alterations in the tactical direction of their companies, they face difficulties concerning the types of shifts and their set scheduling. Thus, at such a point a company may endorse or employ on the basis of general abilities so as to leverage successful (Hsieh &Yik, 2005, p. 67). In this instance, the administrative configuration of the company’s scheme is utilized to enhance the new administration.

Coping with the alignments and the problem of developing future leaders

Companies have to build a parity amongst expert and general abilities so as to grow future executives. Nevertheless, it is essential to pair the planned alignment of the company with administrative abilities (Festing, 2012, p. 37). At the start of a business firm, the planned alignment of the corporation is echoed in the set leading judgment of its administration. Nevertheless, as it grows, leading executives make choices on the foundation of their anticipations as well as principal norms, thus growing the scale and meaning of the company’s administrative judgment. In the due course, the company has processes as well as practices that replicate its governance and administration, it can be difficult for such a company to grow fresh governance (Dries &Pepermans, 2012, p. 361). Currently, the tactical alignment of the company has led to data filter that frees the corporation from unnecessary data, thus making it challenging for new entrepreneurs to deal with the echelon of specialty (Quigley, 2013, p. 579). Consequently, the company ought to come up with fresh governance to work under the present senior administration for a certain period until they progress and form their personal data filters and leading judgment.


Business organizations in diverse fields put funds hugely on governance growth. These attempts focus on enhancing efficacy as well as the quality of work in the company. This literature review has ascertained that while high quality administration develops things, governance keeps individuals spurred to work. As a result, executives ought to look for parity between their inspirational and instructional abilities when handling juniors. So as to discover the merit of administration and governance progression, companies ought to consider their environments, the mentalities of workers, and the results of education initiatives. The planned alignment of a company acts an essential role in the attainment and growth of leaders and executives. As a result, they have to determine the leading judgment of their companies as well as decide on general and expertise administrative abilities when growing their high ranking administrations.



Bongjin, K, Burns, M, & Prescott, J 2009, ‘The Strategic Role of the Board: The Impact of Board Structure on Top Management Team Strategic Action Capability’, Corporate Governance: An International Review, 17, 6, pp. 728-743.

Bolden, R, Gosling, J, Marturano, & Dennison, P 2003, A review of leadership theory and competency frameworks, Centre for Leadership Studies, University of Exeter.

Capozzi, M, Kellen, A, &Smit, S 2012, ‘The perils of best practice: Should you emulate Apple?’, Mckinsey Quarterly, 4, pp. 8-11.

Cristiana, P, &Anca, B 2013, ‘NEW PERSPECTIVES ON STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS’, Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 22, 1, pp. 1573-1580.

Darling, J 2007, ‘Ensuring Enterprise Success Through A Systemic Approach To Leadership Development’, Organization Development Journal, 25, 4, pp. P77-P81.

Denis, J, Lamothe, L, & Langley, A 2001, ‘THE DYNAMICS OF COLLECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND STRATEGIC CHANGE IN PLURALISTIC ORGANIZATIONS’, Academy Of Management Journal, 44, 4, pp. 809-837.

Dries, N, &Pepermans, R 2012, ‘How to identify leadership potential: Development and testing of a consensus model’, Human Resource Management, 51, 3, pp. 361-385.

Festing, M 2012, ‘Strategic Human Resource Management in Germany: Evidence of Convergence to the U.S. Model, the European Model, or a Distinctive National Model?’, Academy Of Management Perspectives, 26, 2, pp. 37-54.

Franken, A, Edwards, C, & Lambert, R 2009, ‘Executing Strategic Change: UNDERSTANDING THE CRITICAL MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS THAT LEAD TO SUCCESS’, California Management Review, 51, 3, pp. 49-73.

Frisch, B 2011, ‘Who Really Makes the Big Decisions in Your Company?’, Harvard Business Review, 89, 12, pp. 104-111.

Hansen, J 2013, ‘Seven steps for effective leadership development’, Human Resources Magazine, 18, 5, pp. 14-17.

Hsieh, T, &Yik, S 2005, ‘Leadership as the starting point of strategy’, Mckinsey Quarterly, 1, pp. 67-73.

Hopkins, W, Mallette, P, & Hopkins, S 2013, ‘PROPOSED FACTORS INFLUENCING STRATEGIC INERTIA/STRATEGIC RENEWAL IN ORGANIZATIONS’, Academy Of Strategic Management Journal, 12, 2, pp. 77-94.

Galvin, T, Gibbs, M, Sullivan, J, & Williams, C 2014, ‘Leadership Competencies of Project Managers: An Empirical Study of Emotional, Intellectual, and Managerial Dimensions’, Journal of Economic Development, Management, IT, Finance & Marketing, 6, 1, pp. 35-60.

Johnson, S, Garrison, L, Hernez-Broome, G, Fleenor, J, & Steed, J 2012, ‘Go For the Goal(s): Relationship between Goal Setting and Transfer of Training Following Leadership Development’, Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 11, 4, pp. 555-569

Kaufman, BE 2012, ‘Strategic Human Resource Management Research in the United States: A Failing Grade After 30 Years?’, Academy Of Management Perspectives, 26, 2, pp. 12-36.

Kanengieter, J, &Rajagopal-Durbin, A 2012, ‘Wilderness Leadership–On the Job’, Harvard Business Review, 90, 4, pp. 127-131.

Ladyshewsky, R.K 2007, A strategic approach for integrating theory to practice in leadership development. Leadership & Organization Development Journal28, 5, pp. 426-443.


McNally, C 2014, ‘Leadership Development Program’, Leadership Excellence, 31, 3, pp. 17-18.

Mihalache, O, Jansen, J, Van Den Bosch, F, &Volberda, H 2012, ‘Offshoring and firm innovation: The moderating role of top management team attributes’, Strategic Management Journal, 33, 13, pp. 1480-1498.

Nickerson, J, Yen, C, & Mahoney, J 2012, ‘Exploring the Problem-Finding and Problem-Solving Approach for Designing Organizations’,Academy Of Management Perspectives, 26, 1, pp. 52-72.

Pienaar, J 2010, ‘What Lies Beneath Leadership Ineffectiveness? — A Theoretical Overview’, Proceedings of the European Conference on Management, Leadership & Governance, pp. 280-286.

Raes, A, Heijltjes, M, Glunk, U, & Roe, R 2011, ‘THE INTERFACE OF THE TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM AND MIDDLE MANAGERS: A PROCESS MODEL’, Academy Of Management Review, 36, 1, pp. 102-126

Sanders, T, & Davey, K 2011, ‘OUT OF THE LEADERSHIP THEORY JUNGLE: A PROPOSED META-MODEL OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP’, Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings of the Academy of Strategic Management (ASM), 10, 1, pp. 41-46.

Senn, C, Thoma, A, & Yip, G 2013, ‘Customer-Centric Leadership: HOW TO MANAGE STRATEGIC CUSTOMERS AS ASSETS IN B2B MARKETS’, California Management Review, 55, 3, pp. 27-59

Salleh, M, & Grunewald, D 2013, ‘Organizational Leadership – The Strategic Role of the Chief Exec’, Journal of Leadership, Accountability & Ethics, 10, 5, pp. 9-20.

Schoemaker, P, Krupp, S, & Howland, S 2013, ‘Strategic Leadership: The Essential Skills’, Harvard Business Review, 91, 1/2, pp. 131-134.

Tamkin, P, Hillage, J &Willison, R 2002, Indicators of management capability: developing a framework. London, Council for Excellence in Management and Leadership.

Quigley, NR 2013, ‘A Longitudinal, Multilevel Study of Leadership Efficacy Development in MBA Teams’, Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 12, 4, pp. 579-602.

Vera, D, &Crossan, M 2004, ‘STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING’, Academy Of Management Review, 29, 2, pp. 222-240.


Posted by:


Related articles

list of articles



  • Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of The Home Depot January 20, 2016
    SWOT Analysis of The Home Depot SWOT analysis of The Home Depot is among the best tools used by the home improvement retailer to gauge its ability to stay afloat and profitable in the market. Although it is considered the largest home improvement retail chain in the world with an estimated revenue base on more […]


Latest News From Blog

Check out Our Blog's assignment samples and tips on how to Write Assigments
Essay sample on the Effects of Cold War on Soviet Union..

Effects of Cold War on Soviet Union The Soviet Union was one of the main participants in the Cold War. It was engaged in the war with the USA and - See more

Essay sample on Effects of Cold War on Asia

Effects of Cold War on Asia Tensions of the Cold War began shifting from Europe to Asia in 1949 when Mao Zeodong proclaimed the birth of the ...Read More

Sample Essay on United Kingdom Healthcare System

United Kingdom Healthcare System United Kingdom healthcare system, also known as the National Health Service was established...Read More

Back to Top