Shootings in American Schools
Two students Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris attacked Columbine High School killing 12 of their classmates in April 1999. Since the fateful day that shocked the world, there have been other cases of school shootings. For example, since the year 2000, there have been more than 50 crucial shootings in the US as noted by (Hawdon, Oksanen, Rasanen & He, 2012).
The office of the governor (2007) observed the situation in order to put the problem of target school based strikes into the picture from 1993 to 1997, the possibility that children between the age of 9 and 12 could be injured in class with a tool or would be confronted. The possibility of engaging in a physical classroom fight was also noted at about 15 percent.
In 1998, learners between the ages of 9 and 12 were reportedly victims of more than 1.6 robberies as well as 1.2 thousand nonfatal aggressive criminal offenses. During the same period, more than 60 school associated aggressive fatalities were reported for the student inhabitants (Safe School Initiative, 2004).
Researchers have not provided any clear reason as to why shootings in schools occur and no one type of student has become a serialized gun shooter. This paper therefore dispels the generalizations and misconceptions about school attackers, who have been seen to be from a minority ethnic groups as observed by (U.S Secret Service, 2002). Additionally, children who strike can be of any age and from any race, cultural group or close relative cases. This has been noted contrary to the misconception that only some youth who intend to launch an attack often do it in a snap.
Targeted assault also defines a case where an attacker identifies a specific school to be attacked before the actual assault. The results therefore clearly highlight the significance of attentive and paying close attention to US teenagers. Teachers, parents, therapists, school directors, trainers and law enforcers can ensure participation to and play a crucial role in preventing assaults in schools.
Young people planning attacks on their schoolmates mainly do not keep any secret. As a matter of fact, they often display obvious indicators through comments, behaviors including voicing issues, showing depressive symptoms, emphasizing on violence or persecution and symptoms of frustration. The United States Secret Service found out that when teens plan a targeted assault, they tell at least one person about their intentions and details of the event before carrying out the assault attack.
What’s more, some can obtain a gun from a relative’s house or from their homes. In this case, a significant protection effort should be considered to ensure that teens have a chance to communicate and connect with grownups (Safe School Initiative, 2009).
2.1 previous researches that support this thesis
Prior, to many incidences, many attackers informed at least one person of his strategy or idea. In more than three fourths of analyzed conditions in the safe school effort, the attacker informed a brother, schoolmate or a friend about his idea for an attack before acting. In one of the shooting incidences, an attacker made several comments to at least 24 friends as well as classmates about his intentions to eliminate other students or carrying out a school environment assault.
Some of the discussions were in fact long and good enough that the friends and colleagues clearly communicated details of impending attacks as well as the date of the event. However, according to research, there is a major hurdle to security of targeted school assault.
In almost all the incidences, the person who was told about an upcoming attack was a professional. Therefore, that threat evaluation questions include efforts geared towards collection of information from relatives of the offenders. It is also necessary to reduce limitations that may prevent learners who have details from reported what they know about an impending attack to relevant authorities.
Researchers need an efficient and innovative way of handling and examining all details as provided. Even though some assailants create risks, many did not endanger their focus directly. The researchers also indicate that it is very crucial to differentiate between making a warning (telling individuals they intend to harm someone) and performing a threat (engaging in actions that indicate the purpose, planning or planning for an attack).
The research notes that programs aimed at preventing school assaults should include attending to issues or concerns whenever a threat is presented as opposed to waiting for a direct attack. There is no useful or accurate profile of the school present attacker. The social features and character of the photographers are considerably different. This is because they came from different cultural and national background scenes and are also different from ages 11 to 21 years.
Few had also been identified clinically as having emotional problems before an occurrence and less than a third had background scenes of excessive drinking and drugs. This is an indication that profiling is not necessarily a way of determining students who pose a threat for any targeted assault in class. What’s more, knowing the characteristics of an individual based on racial background does not provide an advance evaluation of the threat.
Additionally, in many school shooting incidences, the attacker developed the idea to harm the target before the actual assault. Previous research studies have indicated that attackers develop the strike concept at least 2 weeks in advance and planned out the incident. For many attackers, up to 50 percent of them, the main objective is revenge.
Students acquired guns from bomb making devices, from homes and sought support from other friends and colleagues to do so in many circumstances (Safe School Initiative, 2004). A fact based strategy may also be highly effective in preventing school shootings compared to a trait based strategy. This study therefore indicates that a query based on the actions of students as well as emails will be more effective compared to efforts to determine the attackers risk features or characteristics.
The purpose should always be to figure out if the student seems to be preparing for a strike or not. Many assailants had used guns in the past and therefore, accessing them was also easy. In two thirds of the attacks, the assailants had solicited guns used in the strike from a relative’s house or from their homes.
The guns in some situations were gifts from parents of attackers. While access to guns by students remains a typical factor, when the concept of an impending attack prevails, all efforts to prepare, use or obtain a tool may indicate a development plan by an attacker from the beginning to the actual attack implementation (U.S Secret Service).
A risk evaluation query should also include research of accessibility of tools, their use and attention to the interaction about a given gun. A large number of assailants who get guns from a house offer the need to consider the issue of safe gun storage (Borum, 2010). The Safe School Initiative results of incidences documented on school based assaults emphasize on the scarcity of configurations of fatal attacks in the schools.
The Division of Knowledge also reports that nearly 60million children are presently enrolled in more than 119,000 schools in the US (Borum, 2010). The combined efforts of the Division of Knowledge and Secret Service recognize 37 incidences of planned school based attacks dedicated by 41 people over a period of 25years.
The impact of targeted school based attacks however cannot be calculated as per research alone. While it is very clear that other issues affecting American schools are far beyond a typical targeted assault that has occurred, the popular shootings have occurred in schools in the past years increased concern amongst parents, learners and teachers.
Each school based assault has had a long term and remarkable effect on the school where it occurred, the surrounding groups and the nation at large. It the awakening of the strikes, there is a fret over future planned assaults and it has become a great motivator behind several initiatives by professional police officers, school authorities and parents to help identify measures that can be employed to help prevent future assaults in schools.
Many assailants were well known and have had issues managing individual or vital issues. What’s more, many had tried or considered destruction at some point (U.S Secret Service, 2002). Many assailants also appeared to have been undergoing stressful personal issues among other difficult circumstances. Many of them had also recognized reduction prior to the attack (98%, n=40).
The issues above included lack of positions and recognized failure (66%, n=40). lack of vital connection or a loved one, along with a connection ( 51%, n=21), and a crucial sickness knowledgeable by the attacker or by someone important to him (15%, n=6) in line with the research findings of (U.S Secret Service, 2002). In other school shooting cases, the attacker, a former student at the school that was attacked was fired from his work because he had no secondary school degree.
The attacker apparently, held the job reduction on the instructor responsible as he was not successful in a senior one program and it prevented him from clearing his studies. He therefore planned and came back to the school a season after completing university studies, killed his former instructor, two learners and went ahead to hold more than 60 students hostage from more than 10 hours.
External actions for many attackers recommended issues in managing reduction (83%, n=34). For instance, the mother, sibling and friend of the attacker who lost his job had clearly stated that the attackers had become frustrated and reduced following the incident. The friend also revealed that he had noted that the attacker held his former instructor responsible for his problems and had started planning revenge.
The long term goals of the nation in preventing school shootings will be specifically achieved based on research data to guide an all-inclusive school approach. Planning a maintenance and efficient course will also require that organizations and educational directors understand the opportunity and nature of school shootings in the US. We must also identify relationships and styles amongst individuals, university and various factors contributing to the incidences and apply training from program assessments and results relating to security of school shooting incidences.
- Possible implications in regards to current and future policy
After a penetrated a one room California school and killed five girls in 2006 for example, there were reestablished suggestions ensure all instructors were armed with guns and a call to equip learners with Kevlar-coated books for topic protects. A Florida school department also employed an ex-army officer to train students on how to carry out joint counter attacks as well as subdue an armed gunman.
Additionally, the execution of protected targeted and protection initiatives more specially, the national growth zero-tolerance self-discipline strategies outpaced the efficiency of their evidence (Borum, 2010). These were recommendations divided into four different subsections including the obtainability of risky weapons, police, psychological wellness and university security.
In an attempt to touch on all the above four components President Obama, suggested challenging credential record tests for gun sales, thus, reinstating the ban of strike gun, fixing a restriction on a ten round ammunition magazines and getting rid of armor-piercing bullets. Others also include solutions for psychological wellness in schools, providing sources to use more professional police and establishing a state law on gun trafficking among other guidelines (U.S Key Service, 2002).
The actions include creating challenging government divisions to hand over accurate data on criminal record check system, offering regulators, first responders as well as university regulators with good training to enhance active catching situations; directing the Facilities for Disease Control aimed at studying the causes, protection of gun attacks and much more.
The White House advised the legislature to allow the utilization of $4billionn of budgetary allocation to maintain 15,000 police officers on the roads as part of its strategy suggestion. The President also indicated a new effort that would encourage learning institutions to employ more psychological physicians. He advised the legislature to spend more resources on aiding learning institutions as well as chapels to create urgent management programs.
On the gun policy, other suggestions included the ban on high capacity weapons because it could have an effect on the catching in Newtown. It is however not clear what the effect would have been.
Future areas for research
School shootings have created public concern and fostered an extensive picture that schools are risky for many learners; this content surfaces misapprehensions by analyzing scientific evidence of community and school attack styles and analyzing evidence on the best ways to prevent school shootings.
Many of precautionary measures for schools implemented in relevance to the shootings have little support for analysis and strategies including zero patience self-discipline and student profiling that have been belittled as unsound methods. Risk evaluation is also known as an appealing strategy for protection against attack to benefit further studies. The content also indicates the necessity for students to create crisis reaction programs to prepare for and minimize such infrequent events.
Borum, E. A. (2010). What can be done about school shootings? A Review of the Evidence. Retrieved from http://22.214.171.124/uploadedFiles/Publications/Journals/Educational_Researcher/3901/02 7-037_02EDR10.pdf
Hawdon, J., Oksanen, A., Rasanen, P., & Ryan, J. (2012). School shootings and local communities: An international comparison between the United States and Finland. Retrieved from http://www.utu.fi/en/units/soc/units/econsoc/Documents/SchoolShootings.pdf
Office of the Governor. (2007). Fatal school shootings in America 1996-2007. Retrieved from http://www.governor.virginia.gov/tempcontent/techPanelReport-docs/27 APPENDIX L – Fatal School Shooting in the US.pdf
Safe School Initiative. (2004). Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/preventingattacksreport.pdf
U.S. Secret Service. (2002). Preventing school shootings a summary of a U.S. secret service safe school initiative report. NIJ Journal, 248, Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/jr000248c.pdf