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International Relations Essay on Bangladesh Performance in MDGs

Bangladesh Performance in MDGs


Background Information on Bangladesh

Bangladesh is among the small developing nations with a huge population. The country is known to be prone to disasters and also has very limited resources. From many years, the nation has been historically reliant on external assistance considered to be a bottomless pit (Henry Kissinger). However, the country has in the past ten to fifteen years experienced socio-economic growth that has made Goldman Sachs and others look at the country as an emerging economy. In fact, Bangladesh has been included among the N-11 (Next 11 emerging economies). The country is classified as a third world nation in South Asia with a population of around 155 million people according to the World Bank statistics of 2012. Bangladesh has registered an impressive reputation on growth and development in the last decades with its financial growth being forecast at an estimated 6% upsurge annually. The poverty index rates of Bangladesh have gone down by almost a third. This, the prolonged lifespan of the citizens and increased literacy levels of the population since 1992 have made the country to emerge as a very nation towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of 2030 (World Bank, 2012).

According to UNICEF (2008), these findings are true since it also established that 84% of the citizens, an equivalent of 129,000 living persons survive on less than $2 a day.  This is despite the achievements experienced in the national income rate per household. The number of people living in poverty has grown from 36% to 41% in the last three decades (UNICEF, 2008). The hardship gap is becoming wider between the poor and the rich across the country. It is estimated that five thousand people live in slums. In such areas, accessibility to basic essential services is quite limited (UNICEF, 2008). As a result of these, many children are exposed to child labor, thereby missing out on the opportunity to go to school and are vulnerable to acts of violence (UNICEF, 2008). The enrollment of students in university indicates a higher number of boys as compared to ladies, although the dropout rate is still quite high. Bangladesh is also marred with one of the highest cases of child marriages globally. It is estimated that about two thirds of teenage ladies are married off (10 to 19 years of age). The country’s expectant women’s death rate is still quite high, mainly as a result of the fact that most of the deliveries occur at home, where there are no obstetric care services and skilled attendants (UNICEF, 2008). The challenges indicate some of the significant gaps that are yet to be effectively closed in the process of the accomplishment of the country’s growth objectives. The government of Bangladesh is accountable for the identification of the common policy guidelines for the growth of the nation; however, it cannot independently ensure continuous development across the country (World Bank, 2013). The activities of the Non-Governmental Organizations in Bangladesh are great efforts towards development and also dealing with the country’s growth needs. The NGOs are globally known for their remarkable ability in reaching out to the grassroots. The ones that are present in the country are mainly designed to deal with matters of poverty and sustainability. According to Clark (1991), over the last two years, the NGO sector in Bangladesh, just like in other countries have been actively involved in dealing with rural population.

However, a review of the performance of Bangladesh in the contexts of Millennium Development Goals indicates mixed results. The country has done quite well in a few areas like the MDG 2, 4 and 5 with dismal performance in MDG 1,3,6,7 and 8. The nation has made successful achievement of MDG 4 that is aimed at reducing child mortality and MDG 5 that asserts the improvement of maternal health, focused on de creasing the death rate of children under the age of 5 years by 66% between 1990 and 2015, and also the death rate of expectant mothers by 75% respectively (World Bank, 2013).

This paper will highlight these goals and give analysis of the success of Bangladesh so far in the implementation process after the adoption of the declaration. While the country shows prospects of accomplishing some of the MDGs like provision of universal education and women empowerment, the progress in other MDGs look uncertain. Global collaboration with other countries will be required to help in speeding up the financial growth of the country, which is essential for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. This paper will analyze the hypothesis that the achievement of MDGs 2, 4 and 5 in Bangladesh have been marred by various unique features and factors of every sector that cannot be replicated in the achievement of other MDGs.

The Millennium Development Goals

The Eight MDGs came as a result of the Millennium declaration that was agreed upon by the heads of states and other influential world leaders and seconded by member states of the United Nations in 2000 (United Nations, 2013). Through the announcement and commitment, world leaders from various countries made the promise to fight hardships, starvation and diseases, provide education for all children and ensure equivalent opportunities for both men and women, secure the surroundings, as well as create a global collaboration for development. These goals were to be achieved by 2015 (Word Bank, 2013).

As the global reporting year (2015) of the MDGs draws closer, the condition of the actual distributions based on these development goals has been an issue of continuous and broad discussions (Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity, 2013). The national authorities and global development groups are involved in the production of what can be described as the final push towards multiple implementations of the MDGs. Besides, studies indicate that the process of the implementation of the MDGs may carry on beyond 2015 in one way or another based on the findings of the United Nations (2013). This is especially of importance for the Least Developed Countries (LCDs) that still have to be supported on the implementation of the MDGs. Bangladesh is among the developing nations, thus, the implementation of MDGs in the country continues to be a matter of special and developing interest (United Nations, 2013). The MDGs that are discussed in this paper will refer to the set of quantified and time-bound goals aimed at decreasing excessive hardship, diseases and deprival of the basic human rights like education among the poor populations globally (World Bank, 2013).

An Overview of the performance of other countries in MDGs

Six countries, including Bangladesh were awarded the UN Millennium Development Goals Prizes for having shown significant contribution towards the achievement of the eight outlined objectives. Bangladesh obtained the prize for amazing success in achieving the MDGs, especially in decreasing the prevalence of mortality deaths among children according to (Bangladesh Planning Commission, 2013). Nepal on the other hand, received an award from among the 49 least Developed Countries for excellent results in the implementation of the 5th MDG that is aimed at cutting down death rates among expectant mothers through improving their wellness (Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity, 2013).

Cambodia also attained a Millennium Development Goals Award for its achievement in accomplishing the 6th MDG that is mandated for fighting HIV, malaria and other diseases (United Nations, 2013). The country has been honored at the government level for the annual efforts, at a high profile event in New York. Another country that also obtained the MDG Award is Sierra Leone, which was identified to have effectively implemented the 6th MDG of combating HIV/AIDS and malaria (Bhattacharya, 2013). Liberia has also been recognized as having achieved this season’s famous MDG 3 Award for remarkable promotion of gender equality and effective women empowerment across the nation. Rwanda on the other hand, has also been chosen for two MDG Awards for its efforts in reducing the rates of children mortality and improvements in the wellbeing of expectant mothers (Bangladesh Planning Commission, 2013).

Literature Review: Bangladesh Implementation of MDGs

Goal 1: Eradication of Extreme Poverty and Hunger

The United Nations Population Fund (2010) noted that the first and most important MDG goal was to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (UNFPA, 2010). This goal is quite important such that if the other seven are well implemented, they can help in its achievement.  The rates of hardship have been reduced by half, and about 700 thousand less people now live in conditions of extreme poverty as compared with how it was in 1990. One in every eight individuals still goes to bed without food, despite the significant achievements (Ministry of Health Bangladesh, 2010). It is estimated that one in every six children across the world is underweight.

Bangladesh has made significant improvements in addressing the issue of poverty and starvation. The country has a constant GDP amount of development in excess of 6%, which has been instrumental in the elimination of poverty (Ministry of Health Bangladesh, 2010). The effective development has been linked to corresponding achievements in various social aspects like improved life span and lower infertility rates. However, the country is still ranked among the most populous globally. The comprehensive development has contributed to a reduction in malnutrition related conditions and poverty rates from about 56.7% in 1991 to 1992, to around 31.5% in 2010 (Bhattacharya, 2013).

To top up all the above, Bangladesh has also confirmed its ability to accomplish the goal of poverty reduction within the focus on a period, although the achievement of food security and health wellness still pose great challenge (United Nations, 2013). The difficulties in the reduction of inequality in earnings and the low financial contribution of women have also been very significant in national development (World Bank, 2013). According to all the statistics, the decrease in poverty occurred at a much faster rate in the 90s compared to during the previous years. This is possibly because of the more successful financial development during this time. The accomplishment of the poverty MDG looks possible in Bangladesh, but only if the country is able to maintain strong developments with regards to financing education for both women and men, and attacking the cases of income disparities from skyrocketing across the country according to the observation by (Bangladesh Planning Commission, 2013).

The improvement impacted reduction in poverty levels across the country, even though it is not adequate in attaining the major goal of cutting down the levels by half by 2015 as outlined in the MDGs. In 1990, the rate of poverty in the country stood at 50% and therefore, MDG 1 is aimed at bringing it down by 25% by 2015 (United Nations, 2013). This is an implication that there is need for the reduction of poverty annually by about 1.41% from now until 2015. However, poverty has only dropped by 1.06% in the last five years. Bangladesh is not on the right path towards the total accomplishment of the first MDG (Bhattacharya, 2013). Although some achievements have been made, there are wide disparities in the pace of poverty reduction across several areas and districts within the country. In certain areas, there is a huge decrease in poverty, however, in a few others poverty is actually on the rise. (Bangladesh Planning Commission, 2013) points out that the current rate of poverty reduction in the country will need up to an estimated 135 years to totally eradicate it in the rural areas and 43 years to achieve the significant MDG objectives. Similarly, Bangladesh may also not be able to attain the goal of cutting down the number of people experiencing starvation by half.

Goal 2: Achieving Universal Primary Education

Bangladesh has realized the value of education towards social, economic and political development in the country. MDG 2 was set in accordance with the United Nations belief that education can transform lives, especially for those in developing nations (Nayeemul, 2012). Thus, making sure of 100% enrollment by the country’s population in learning institutions is among the key means of accomplishing the objective of illiteracy and ignorance eradication (United Nations, 2013). Therefore, the second MDG’s implementation is critical in the elimination of poor livelihoods in developing countries (Nayeemul, 2012). Significant steps have been laid down by the government of Bangladesh towards improving reasonable accessibility to knowledge and a decrease in the rate of dropout cases as pointed out by the (World Bank, 2013).

Bangladesh has already attained gender equality in main and additional enrollment. The government has taken initiatives for the introduction of pre-school institutions so as to prepare the children for formal education. Besides, it is also in the process of implementing a comprehensive National Education Plan (2010) towards the achievement of its objectives (Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and equity, 2013).

Bangladesh’s structure is ideal for free and compulsory education at the primary level. However, majority of the mentally and physically disabled children remain in exclusion from the education systems according to the (World Bank, 2013), although the United Nations insists that enrollment rates have seen an improvement by 21 points from an estimated 65% to 86% between 2013 and 2015 (United Nations, 2013). However, this is still considered to be well below the MDG recommended level of all children aged between 6 to ten years being registered in universities (World Bank, 2013). The greatest achievements have been observed in the rate of enrollment of men and women (United Nations, 2013). It is forecast that this trend will continue in the country into the future, including financial development, financial education aid for boys and girls, improved physical facilities and provision of Primary Education Stipends Program by the government (Nayeemul, 2012). However, the improvements are still unlikely to be successful, considering the necessary training and learning that is required for the delivery of this MDG (Bangladesh Planning Commission, 2013).

The Bangladeshi Women Secondary Stipend Program has enabled many girls to acquire a higher enrollment rate compared to men according to the (Ministry of Health Bangladesh, 2010). The Secretary of State for Education statistics show that, out of the seven thousand children registered in primary schools in 2000, four thousand were females (Bhattacharya, 2013). When the distance and challenge of attaining college education is narrowed (either through enhanced infrastructure and transportation or building a college in the rural areas for easy accessibility), the enrollment rates of women is likely to go even much higher. The nation has accomplished or almost achieved the objective of eliminating gender disparities in education. Bangladesh is the only country in South Asia apart from Sri Lanka that has attained equal rights in the representation of both sexes in education (United Nations, 2013).

Goal 3: Promoting Gender Equality and Women Empowerment

Bangladesh has already attained the objective of promoting gender equality. This development has been impacted by some specific community measures focused on female students, like stipends and the exemption of girls who come from rural areas from payment of tuition fees. The country has been quite successful in accomplishing the goals of guaranteeing gender equality and women empowerment (Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity, 2013). Bangladeshi government has shown its commitment towards achieving the objective of the Convention on the Reduction of All Kinds of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW); the China Platform for Action and MDGs in compliance with the fundamental rights as outlined in the country’s constitution (United Nations, 2013).

Bangladesh has adopted the Nationwide Protect Females’ Advancement (2011) and various applications aimed at guaranteeing the sustainable development among the local women (Bangladesh Planning Commission, 2013). There has been significant increase in the number of women elected to parliament (20% complete seats) in the last elections. However, the salary of women is still very low across the country. It is estimated that out of five women, only one is involved in a career in the sectors that are not related to agriculture (Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity, 2013).

Goal 4: Decreasing Child Mortality Rate

Bangladesh has already achieved the aim of reducing the death rates of children below five years of age according to the (Bangladesh Bureau of Education Information and Statistics, 2005). The aim of reducing the mortality rates of babies is also on the track. The success achieved in immunization, management of diarrhea illnesses and Vitamin A supplements are considered to be among the key aspects in reducing the child mortality rates, accompanied with potential impact of overall financial and community development.

Despite these improvements, (Bhattacharya, 2013) says that there are still difficulties ahead. He points out that not only have the mortality rates of babies gone down in Bangladesh compared to India but is now quite lower in the former than the later, a country that experiences double the earnings per household compared to Bangladesh (United Nations, 2013). According to forecasts, there should be a possibility of Bangladesh to achieve the reduced child mortality rates, developing female education, and family planning applications that can motivate women to delay childbirth, and enhanced child immunization programs (The Economist, 2013).

Goal 5: Improving Maternal Health

According to the review of Bangladesh’s first MDG Improvement index, the rate at which expectant mothers lost their lives in the 1990s was about 574 in every 100,000 still births across the country. However, Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey (BMMS, 2013) indicates that these percentages have significantly gone down with more than 40%. There has been noted progress from 2001 to 2010 in the reduction of mortality rate among expectant mothers as observed by the (United Nations, 2013).

Goal 6: Fighting Malaria and HIV/AIDS

Bangladesh has shown impressive performance in stopping communicable diseases under this goal. According to the (Bangladesh Bureau of Education and Statistics, 2005), the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh is currently lower than 0.1%. There was a significant reduction in malaria deaths across the country in the past decades. Intensive information, knowledge and communication campaigns have also been conducted to help in improving mass awareness on prevention and management of malaria. This has resulted into the level of change that is so far attained (Bangladesh Bureau of Education Information and Statistics, 2005).

Goal 7: Ensuring Environmental Sustainability

Currently, only 19.4% of land in Bangladesh is covered in shrub with solidity of above 10%. Since 1991, the country has experienced a stable improvement in reducing carbon dioxide exhaust emissions in Bangladesh. The emission as estimated to be at 0.3% tonne per household in 2007. However, there is great challenging in accessibility to safe water as are a result of arsenic salinity attacks that are caused by global warming. In fact, it is reported that the availability of safe water, especially for the poor will be exacerbated (Bangladesh Bureau of Education Information and Statistics, 2005).

Goal 8: Developing Global Partnerships for Development

It is reported that the paid Official Development Assistance (ODA), that is a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product for Bangladesh has dropped from 5.6% to 1.6% between 1990 to 1991 and 2010 to 2011 respectively. During this period, the ODA payment for every household reduced from US$1.5.75 to US$12.01. Thereafter, the level of poverty has continued to decline, while loan rates are going up. However, in 2010 and 2011, the poverty level rose up to 48% of complete ODA after a long period. Out of the 34 member states of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), only nine countries offered US$363.99, 000 ODA by Bangladesh in 2010 and 2011. The amount was only 20.5% of the complete ODA remitted by Bangladesh in the season (Bangladesh Bureau of information and Statistics, 2005).

The Government of Bangladesh has put up measures towards ensuring global accessibility through harmonious development of telecoms network and constructing enhanced and reliable telecom facilities for efficiency in execution of ICT policy and ultimately meeting the 2021 vision set by the government. Currently, there are estimated 20.5% internet surfers per every 100 people. This is compared to the 0.15%, 0.20% and 3.4% in 2005, 2006 and 2008 respectively, as observed by the UNDP (2013).

Performance Review of Bangladesh against MDGs

Bangladesh has to maintain its great efforts towards making achievements in the MDGs, as well as setting up on attaining certain objectives where there are still lags. The country has been successful in offering universal free primary education, enhancing gender equality in tertiary education and other learning institutions (MDG 2). In health, the country has made tireless efforts in speeding up reduction of the death rates of expectant mothers (MDG 5), and improving accessibility to safe and normal water with special concentrate in urban centers, and slums (MDG 7) according to (Bangladesh Planning Commission, 2013). However, the youth still lack employment and this trend is on the rise. There is need for more attention to help in developing and application of various strategies aimed at guaranteeing reasonable accessibility and effective performance in the labor sector for 15to 24 year-olds (MDG 1). This can be effective in poverty reduction. Although there has been remarkable growth in the number of cellular telephone subscribers across the country, the proportion of internet and people using computers is still very low (MDG 8) based on the observations of (Bhattacharya, 2013).

More emphasis should also be placed on promoting the spread of information and emails technology if Bangladesh is to remain competitive on the international platform. The United Nation’s activities in the country have been linked to the achievement of the MDGs and specific programs have been created to help in addressing those areas that require much support (World Bank, 2013). For instance, advertising pre-primary education and learning, early learning programs and improved main education and learning assisted in raising the levels of net enrollment from 60% in 1990 to 87% in 2005. Nutrition programs, better immunization services coverage and enhanced medical care helped in reducing the rate of death of children below five years old from 151 in 1990 to 62 per one thousand live births in 2005/2006 (UNICEF, 2013).

Critical Analysis of the Performance of Bangladesh in the MDGs

The publication by GDE titled, ‘MDG Financing Strategy for Bangladesh 2011’ estimated the complete requirement of US$78.2 billion for the period of 2011 to 2015 to help in the achievement of the MDGs in Bangladesh (Islam and Rahman, 2008). Although trends indicate higher contributor assistance in the form of higher ODA payments for the MDGs objectives, economical commitment in scientific research, development of facilities like non-urban streets, irrigation, plant foods, seeds and credit for agricultural development should be placed as priorities (Islam and Rahman, 2008). The development of the government structures in Bangladesh according to the requirements of economic development has also enhanced improvements. Besides, they have also encouraged the interests from other emerging markets that are within the special financial zones (Islam & Rahman, 2008).

It should be noted that while the nation may have effectively been successful in the implementation of MDG 2, 4 and 5, it has been hit by challenges in the achievement of the others. Based on the discussion given above, it is clear that each of the MDGs, despite being linked to one another, has its unique elements that may not be replicated towards achieving the others, including their target indicators as outlined by the (United Nations, 2013). The child mortality per million still births reduced to 94 in 1990 to 56 in 2005. According to the predictions, the decrease in child mortality rates has been faster in the nation’s urban areas compared to the rural areas. One of the aspects that describe the fast reduction in the rate of child mortality in Bangladesh has been a successful family planning program (Bhuyan, 2012). The other remarkable improvement has been in growing child immunization protection over the last two years, Bangladesh has indeed shown that it can meet the infertility and death rate decrease requirements in developing countries even in the lack of powerful financial development and enhanced socio-economic circumstances (UNDP, 2013). For example, while focusing on MDG 2, the essential aspect that should be emphasized on is not on increasing the rate of university enrolment or reducing school dropout cases but instead of improving the top quality provision in the education process. It is in this regard that Bangladesh is at a distinct disadvantage (The Economist, 2013). There is insufficient and even poor governance in the country’s educational sector. School management boards are dominated with politics. The process of teachers’ recruitment to take up on the responsibility of teaching children is often subjected to political interference and massive corruption. The absenteeism of teachers is also widespread another challenge, which most teachers emphasizing more on private schools compared to public therefore, only the rich who can afford private education. This means that only the rich are benefiting at the expense of the majority which are poor (World Bank, 2013). Scandals over the educational curriculum development are widely reported. Besides, corruption is also another problem that has impacted low quality of university education. It is as a result of these problems that low equality of education has been persistent in Bangladesh. NGOs across the country play an instrumental role in the promotion of education nationally.

The achievement of MDG 3 has been curtailed by the increasing cases of violence against women in Bangladesh, and is currently the most crucial hindrance to the progression of women in the country. This should therefore, be given proper attention if this objective is to be achieved. The Bangladesh National Strategy for Economic Growth and Hardship Reduction recommended that several steps should be taken towards addressing this matter (Bhuyan, 2012). Such steps include making sure that the testing procedures for victims of violence are hastened, providing protection for witnesses, investing and utilizing adequate resources for the recovery of protection for women. It also requires the presentation of effective one-step help centers for victims of violence, enhanced with sufficient resources and personnel.

Although the gender gap is becoming narrow in Bangladesh across various social institutions, the overall level of power calculated with regards to knowledge, contribution of employees, property rights and credit access still poses great challenges (Bhuyan, 2012). Another issue that is related to the institutions is improving the governmental voice of women, especially poor women, which can be instrumental in the promotion of faster improvement in the wellness of children and communities. The main activities that should be undertaken in this regard include increasing the number of women representatives in parliament, activities aimed at making the contributions of women in municipality and parliament to be meaningful, demanding that all parliamentary status committees should hold public conferences on matters pertaining to women, employment of women members of parliament as chairpersons of various parliamentary status committees, giving room for regional women management to also make contributions in the decision making processes, and guaranteeing that the regional government authorities should obtain advise from within the regional women companies and ladies management in the identification of key problems (World Bank, 2013).

With regards to MDG 7, it is important to note that among the various man-made environmental issues across the globe, air contamination is perhaps the most prevalent in Bangladesh, considering that it is the most densely populated country in the world (Bhuyan, 2012). Air contamination in the country results from the exhaust of smoke from cars and commercial plants. Besides, it is also caused by the burning of fossil fuel and wood by stone kilns, which produces sulphur dioxide. Development activities in various areas are destroying land, forestry, underwater environment, and bio-diversity. Change in climate may cause an increase in temperature and moisture in Bangladesh (UNFPA, 2013). Global warming can also result into the inflammation of water in the Bay of Bengal. All these can impact 10 to 20% of the country’s scenery, like Sunderbans, such that they can get completely engulfed by water, and salinity may rise through into the water ways (Bhuyan, 2012). Bangladesh is home to limited abilities, technology and resources that can be used in averting environmental challenges. However, even though the United Nations Millennium declaration has not clearly indicated any goal, the government of Bangladesh has undertaken the implementation of various measures aimed at improving and protecting the environment. Cutting down the percentages by half of the people without maintainable accessibility to safe normal water and cleanliness is a critical MDG that is related to the environment. The percentage of inhabitants in Bangladesh that lack accessibility to improved sanitation in 1990 was about 77%. The focus of the MDG is to reduce it to 38.5 by 2015. The coverage of sanitation services across the country has recently improved at the rate of an estimated 2%, moving from 23% to 48% in 1990 and 2002 respectively (Bhuyan, 2012).

Therefore, it is evident that all these goals are impacted by various elements that influence their implementation or achievement. This is because every problem that the objective aims at addressing is unique in nature. Operationalizing the private and public partnerships (PPPs) initiative is an essential avenue towards the accomplishment of the MDGs in Bangladesh (The Economist, 2013). The potential of foreign direct investments (FDIs) has also remained underutilized. Therefore, it is important that a national competition research is conducted in order to determine profitable places of economical commitment and creation of positive image of the country. Business plan should entail aspects that affect not only trade but also economical commitment methods (The Economist, 2013). It is now time for the country to undertake the adoption of a plan program that provides effective help in development.

This requires that more changes should be made in the economy of the country, along with additional competent opportunities for effective career generation (Mitra & Bhadra, 2010). Although this review indicates the potential of Bangladesh in achieving the goal of hardship reduction within the focus on timeframe, getting food security and healthy wellbeing continues to be a challenge. The problems in accomplishment of certain objectives like the elimination of hardships and hunger (MDG 1), (MDG 2 of cutting down the death rates of expectant mothers, MDG 5 and achievement of environmental sustainability (MDG 7) are still doing effective and can be compared to identical challenges faced by other South countries of Asia (Islam & Rahman, 2008). The percentage of seats held by women in parliament, even though is impressive, will have registered an improvement of about 33% in 2015 (Mitra & Bhadra, 2010). In the case of the implementation of MDG 5, Bangladesh is on the right path considering its efforts in the health sector that have been globally recognized. Similarly, despite the low incidence of the communicable diseases, Bangladesh encounters essential challenges in the maintenance of good performance track record (Mitra & Bhadra, 2010).

For the sustainability of the environment (MDG 7), some of the essential challenges include guaranteeing the effective use of forest resources, deficiency of assistance in technological innovation, lack of proper control and adequate enforcement that reveal the gaps in the predicted fisheries industry development, insufficient information on the farming techniques (The Economist, 2013).

Just like other underdeveloped western countries, Bangladesh is faced with essential development loop holes like low and imbalanced economic development, since districts experience variations in the levels of economic growth. Other problems include lack of proper nutrition, lack of employment, slow response to matters of development and global warming that impacts climate change. The status of the country’s development shows that much focus is required on critical areas like capacity building, accessibility of knowledge and technology, human and community development, and strengthening the government and institutional structures as observed by (The Economist, 2013).

Based on my analysis on this study, the lessons that can be learnt from the success achieved in the MDGs is that all have been attained as a result of partnerships between the government of Bangladesh and other local NGFOs and international organizations like the World Bank, international Monetary Fund, UNICEF and the general United Nations body. These elements of partnerships I believe could be replicated towards achieving other MDGs.


The first seven objectives are to be followed by the developing countries for distinct reduction in poverty rates, diseases incidences, and environmental deterioration, while the 8th objective is basically a dedication to the need for global collaboration; calling for wealthy countries to work together with underdeveloped nations towards analyzing and developing sound economic guidelines and further creating trading and economic opportunities, like responsibilities to good governance, development and poverty eradication. The MDGs are also calling out for the western nations to offer the necessary assistance to the developing countries for accomplishing these goals. Bangladesh has struggled in attaining the MDGs in the past years, even as 2015 comes closer. Besides, the country has also strived towards enhancing university enrolment; a key step has been made since the level of illiteracy and ignorance has been cut down. The progress of the country on achieving the MDGs is very stable and quite progressive. This is shown by the additional number of women who can now access education and have also been empowered.



Bhattacharya, E. A. (2013). Attaining the MDGs how successful are the LCDs? Retrieved from   

Bangladesh Bureau of Education Information and Statistics. (2005). Report on primary    education in Bangladesh: Challenges and successes. Retrieved from Education in Bangladesh.pdf Bangladesh Planning Commission. (2013). the millennium development goals Bangladesh             progress report 2012. Retrieved from             Report_2012_Final_11_06_2013.pdf

Bhuyan, A. (2012). Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): A review of Bangladesh’s   achievements. Retrieved from

Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity. (2013). Primary             education in rural Bangladesh: degrees of access, choice, and participation of the        poorest. Retrieved from

Clark J. (1991). Democratizing Development: The Role of Voluntary Organization. London.         Eartscan.

Islam, M., & Rahman, M. (2008). Challenges of policy formulation and implementation of            primary education in Bangladesh: A conceptual analysis. Asian Affairs, 30(3), 40-51.   Retrieved from

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Mitra, S., & Bhadra, K. (2010). Population and MDGs in Bangladesh: Achievement and   challenges. Retrieved from and MDGs in     Bangladesh_0.pdf

Nayeemul, K. (2012). Prioritizing ‘universal primary education’ without post basic education in    eradicating extreme poverty – a public policy perspective in Bangladesh. Retrieved from   

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United Nations. (2013). Millennium development goals list of indicators. Retrieved from   

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