Democratic Management Style

Political Science Essay on BILL CLINTON’S ADMINISTRATION

BILL CLINTON’S ADMINISTRATION

Abstract

This essay mainly centers on the administration of former President, Bill Clinton, based on his four policies which were peace, power, prosperity, and principles. In addition, the essay explores the intrigues of this particular administration to the American people. Bill Clinton laid his leadership foundation based on these four Pillars, which functionally enabled him to succeed in establishing a two-term administration in America.

(Key Words: Bill Clinton, Administration, Rule, America, Leadership, Peace, power, Prosperity)

Introduction

President Bill Clinton was first elected into office in 1992 and his first four-year tenure in office, was characterized by many things that resulted in his unpopularity and acted as an obstacle during his reelection bid. Between 1992 and 1996 Clinton’s administration applied unique administrative frameworks aimed at exerting the President’s dominance over the American people, and this did not sit well with the citizens. By 1996, the voting enthusiasm witnessed in 1992 had translated into disgust and hatred of Clinton’s administration among Americans. Despite this, Clinton’s administration was pioneered by four functional frameworks of peace, power, prosperity, and principles which were expected to create and sell a unique ideology to the Americans.  Experts state that “Out of the four pillars that Clinton initiated, America became a home of peace and security, something that has never been witnessed in America since its inception”. In turn, the relative peace led to economic stability and improved the social well-being of the American people. President William Bill Clinton will be remembered in the history of America as the first Democratic President to win a second Term after Franklin Roosevelt. Besides experiencing economic prosperity and relative peace, America also improved in terms of lowered inflation rates, unemployment rates and crime rates during Bill Clinton’s tenure as president.  He also played a crucial role in social reforms and experts say that “Other social spheres that Bill Clinton pioneered include his massive reform in social integration and creation of a non-discriminative society”. In particular, such reforms were evident from his call for the abolition of racial discrimination which was still prevalent in the formative years of his tenure.  Before venturing into active politics, Bill Clinton worked in public service where he was active in social service. The following is a short narration of Clinton’s life, before and after his election as America’s President. According to experts, President Clinton’s popularity waned after his first term in office and some have stated that “However, the charm and enthusiasm that followed Clinton’s first term in office was never reflected in his reelection bid since only a simple majority of the American voting block had participated in the voting exercise.” The poor voter turnout was an indication of the disgust and hatred that majority of the populace felt against Clinton’s administration after his first tenure in office. The concerted efforts that were put in place to implement the four policy frameworks reveal the melting point of Clinton’s administrative life as the USA president. In spite of these efforts, many citizens still felt discontent and opposed the Clinton administration.

Research Question: What did President Bill Clinton’s administration do to maintain power, preserve peace, and establish his own principles?

During the transition from his first term to his second, President Bill Clinton was more firm and committed to serving and leading America within the premises of the 4Ps policies. The developmental progress of America’s social and economic institutions was a sign of the efforts that Clinton put in place to fulfill his pledges to the American people and he asserted his points in his speeches before the American citizens. Experts deem the speech that Bill Clinton made during his second inauguration as  “One of his most ostensible speeches that indicate his commitment to sufficing social justice and economic transformation”. While, Clinton expressed confidence that he would achieve his flagship projects under the 4p’s framework during this second inauguration, his critics argued that he had failed to fulfill his obligations during the first tenure and he had nothing unique to offer to the American people. Nevertheless, Clinton and his entire administration still spearheaded every activity with the main goal of enhancing national unity and economic stability. The concept of the 4Ps formed a foundation  upon which Bill Clinton’s administration was based and took precedence, functionally applying within the American social framework.

Besides the 4Ps, President Clinton also made numerous efforts in championing for the dreams that had been professed by his predecessors from the democratic party. In fact, Bill Clinton anchored his four strategic policies upon the social and political inspirations of Martin Luther King. Experts reveal that “Martin Luther King, in his speech advocated for a just society free from social and racial intrigues, and Clinton relied on these social ideals to provide a firm administration.” For instance, his administration established peace and economic stability as the main pursuit in his administration so as to ensure smoother progression. By using the four pillars, President Bill Clinton’s administration upheld peace in America. Administration of this aspect was done by establishing both internal and international peace treaties that were aimed at ending global wars. Indeed, in doing so Bill Clinton was actually fulfilling Martin Luther’s dreams, which advocated for a free society and total recess to different wars that rocked the world. In fact analysts state that “One profound and significant achievement in administering internal peace was the eventual institution of vast security force that served both internal and external security requirements of America”. Additionally, Clinton  condemned the evils of capitalism which on certain occasions were known to subject society to great disparities hence causing severe security problems. By so doing he acted on the social pillars that were laid by the late Martin Luther King. Following these inspirational accords, it is clear that Clinton followed in the footsteps of Martin Luther who actively campaigned for reforms especially within the security sector through sustainability of social collaboration and peace. Clinton saw the essence of linking global peace to economic growth and stability hence he made generation of peace a pertinent goal under his regime. As a result, during his , as president, Bill Clinton signed various memorandums and peace treaties with many Latin American countries and other countries such as Vietnam which until then had been battling with ideological wars.

The 1996 Crime Bill is considered the first move and the mastermind of all milestones in terms of security bills accredited to Clinton’s administration. This was well endorsed and received overwhelming support both from the Republicans and the Democrats. Essentially, this bill gave stiffer penalties to criminals and categorically banned criminal acts within America.  The move by the Clinton administration to adopt this particular legislation came in the wake of high crime rates and deteriorating security standards and conditions within the country. Indeed experts state that “The old law pertaining to crime advocated for restrain measures and this was viewed as a loophole to social responsibility in security.” Many citizens were complacent because any crime within America attracted correctional measures as opposed to punitive actions and as a result security standards and conditions were greatly compromised. This prompted the Clinton administration to enact new laws that would correct the situation.  The chapters and sub articles of the new law required that all criminal acts be punishable by law and the move to enact the new law came amidst major repeal of the old chapter of the criminal act which only served to prevent crime as opposed to dealing with the perpetrated crimes. The old law governing crime had severe consequences on the state of security in America and people acted irresponsibly knowing very well they could not be punished by law. The new law changed this by introducing the death penalty for severe criminal offences. According to experts this Bill was given so much importance and “Peace being the motive behind this new progress, prompted Bill Clinton to allocate over $8 billion in aid for constructing new prisons”. Clinton’s administration was lauded greatly fir enacting this new Bill because it led to numerous achievements.   The Bill was essentially aimed at curbing crime and terror acts in America. Economists view peace as an essential condition for facilitating trade and investment and it is because of this that the Clinton regime decided to foster peace within and outside its borders. “In addition, acts of terrorism were becoming prevalent in America, so this move was aimed at suppressing any acts of crime generated by terrorism”. In spite of the achievements, Clinton’s critics argued that the bills introduced by the Clinton regime were politically motivated and were instituted to give the ruling party more authority and control. Unlike Clinton, the former presidents used attention diverting techniques to cover up the security problems that were prevalent during their regimes. The citizens’ anger at security lapses was effectively diverted to the groups which had no means of defending themselves.  Criminals did not have sufficient resources to defend themselves against the government.

However, the introduction of the new bill seemingly served its intended purpose because people became skeptical to committing offences due to the adverse consequences in terms of stiff penalties associated with criminal acts. The new techniques applied by the Clinton administration in suppressing crime were aimed at enhancing peace and security and to fight criminals from within and outside. Screening of immigrants and foreign visitors entering America among other tough operations was introduced and this was based on different premises.  “For instance, the government created the impressions that rise in terrorism in America was more prone due to the high number of free immigrants in the country.” Taking this into account, tougher measures were introduced against foreigners who committed crime within American soil, with heavier punishments being meted out against them. In addition, arbitrary arrests of suspected criminals gained popularity and the arrested suspects would be investigated. Upon being found guilty, they would be punished in the courts of law.

The Clinton’s administration met its objective of preserving peace and was credited for the massive peace that was experienced in America. According to analysts, “The crime rate dropped significantly due to Clinton’s adoption of peace and crime acts.  This was the first time in 26 years that peace became so prevent in America.” The comprehensive anti-crime strategy  was yet another policy measure that was implemented during Bill Clinton’s regime and it posted stiffer penalties on criminal offenders. Other measures were also undertaken by the administration included increasing the number of policemen and introduction of the smart prevention act that led to decrease in crime rates. The high number of police officers substantially increased the police to civilian ratio hence making it possible for police to suppress incidences of crimes and contain deplorable conditions hence offer the public better  security.

Furthermore, common sense gun safety laws that were introduced created greater responsibility in handling guns, and this was an issue that was never existent. Bill Clinton also enacted a new social initiative which was associated with the 1994 Crime Bill and led to funding of over 100,000 police officers. Experts state that “These set of security officers did community policing and maintenance of security at the local and street levels”. The 1993 Brady Act is yet another measure that the Clinton’s administration made towards fostering peace and the administration was credited with introducing the  most sweeping gun safety legislations in a generation in America. Under the Brady Act, limited access was given to the immigrants and foreigners. In fact, this law only permitted natives to purchase personal guns. As a result gun crime reduced by more than 40%. This decline was the most outstanding and consequently public peace and sanity was restored in America. Indeed, preservation of peace as a central policy was effectively achieved under Clinton’s administration because public peace was improved in America.

Maintaining power was the ultimate goal of the Democratic Party in endorsing Bill Clinton’s presidential bid hence Clinton’s administration was focused on policies that could foster public and confidence in the party. In order to achieve this, Bill Clinton used specific strategies and the the first strategy that he applied was instituting socio-economic reforms.  This entailed implementing restructuring programs within the security sector of America and this helped to reinstate security within America. “With these reforms, the public gained more confidence and trust in Clinton’s administration.” As a result, there was very little resistance against Clinton’s administration because of the increased security.

Additionally, Clinton’s administration enhanced service delivery through amicable security measures and this is one of the main reasons why Clinton served for a two terms in office. Clinton equally maintained power through implementing specific measures which boosted economic welfare for the citizens of America. The first social welfare act that was enacted by this administration was the renowned Family and Medical Act that covered over 20 million American citizens. Maintaining family care and solidarity among citizens in times of illnesses and cases of birth, was the main aim of this policy and it helped more Americans to take unpaid leave in order to care for their sick relatives and newborn children. Analysts state that “Poverty eradication programs were equally instigated by Clinton through his administration, and they consequently saw significant low leveling in poverty limit America”.  The motive behind instituting new laws and special measures was to ensure that Clinton’s administration retained power by maintaining a good rapport with the public sector. Essential economic stimulus programs were also rolled out by the Clinton administration and this enabled the American population to grow and expand their enterprises. Other measures undertaken included protecting public resources and in particular land belonging to America was protected from looters and grabbers. In summary, Clinton’s administration was heavily dependent on policies that protected the poor and this helped to build confidence in the administration. Despite critics’ comments and views against this administration, it was able to serve for two terms in office because of this.

Besides institution of policies and new laws, Clinton’s administration also managed to set specific principles to act against tension raised by the opposition. The first strategy that Clinton’s administration applied was creating an all-inclusive government and hence involved the opposition in making decisions regarding policy applications. “By involving the opposition side in making reforms, Clinton’s government managed to pass most of its resolutions with little resistance.” On the other hand, Clinton’s administration also depended on the goodwill of the public to implement their policies and extend their authority. The government therefore made friendly legislations that favored public interest, and this effectively diverted  the public’s attention and avoided resistance while enhancing collaboration. Little opposition that was experienced in other states was quickly ignored by the majority. “The best method that Clinton’s administration used in exercising its principles is due to the high number of legislatures that they commanded both in the lower and the upper house”. The congressmen championed the wishes of the government and supported Bill Clinton. Indeed, the government took advantage of its tyranny of numbers to pass public Bills.

Statement of the problem: should focus on why bill Clinton was hated and loved as a president

Why Clinton Was Liked

Clinton’s personal character made him get acceptance from most Americans. He personally professed a religious life and even gave his life to God at some point, creating a central inspiration for a majority of Americans who desired to identify with a pious president. Specifically, Clinton was actively involved in church affairs and in his adult life he occasionally attended the Baptist Church. These religious beliefs was well aligned with the American people and hence created high confidence and trust in President Clinton’s capability to steer the country into the right dimension. In fact so much did Americans trust in Clinton’s religious beliefs that experts state “Due to Clinton’s glowing tribute as a religious man, his social misfortune did not completely mess his personal relations with the public, even after the news floated that he had an affair with the White House intern, Monica Lewinsky.”  The Monica Lewinsky affair did not water down Clinton’s character due to his religious beliefs and polls even indicated that he scored a 63% after the saga.

Secondly, Clinton was liked so much by Americans due to his concerted efforts towards fighting crime in the country. Reduced crime rates that were unprecedented for 26 years was directly linked to his policy frameworks. Security reforms and laws such as increase in number of police officers, the 1993 Brady Bill and the 1994 Crime Bill that were both signed by Clinton enhanced security levels in America and boosted peace in the process. The enhanced security resulted in better social welfare for the American people and also increased confidence in the President. Analysts also state that “Other sectors that Clinton played pivotal roles include, the military and defense system, which experienced massive reforms and improvements.”  For instance the American Military  advanced  technologically and was able to access precision weapons and GPS technology.

Other than security sector, Clinton’s efforts towards economic development also enhanced his popularity.  In particular, he bridged the 1992 USA budget deficit of about $290 billion to a surplus of $127 billion by the time he left office in 2001.  Fundamental economic reforms that were steered by President Clinton also improved the welfare of the American population. By creating new jobs, Clinton’s administration effectively reduced unemployment rates from 7.5% to 4%. The poverty index in America also reduced during Clinton’s tenure.

In addition, Clinton’s popularity among people was also increased due to the major reforms he undertook in the education sector. “Education reforms include the American’s School Act of 1994, which received overwhelmingly high support from the republicans and democrats, as well the civil and business community.” This is regarded as one of the most outstanding achievements within this sector ever made by an American president and due to all the mentioned reforms, Clinton was personally liked and lauded by many Americans.

Why he was Hated

Clinton’s administration also faced a lot of criticism despite the achievements it made. One of the key criticisms was that economic progress attributed to the President was undeserved because economic indicators showed economic growth even before he assumed office. These critics attributed the economic success to the effective policies instituted during the Republican regimes. In fact, analysts state that   “On the other hand, Clinton is faulted on many accounts where he failed to regulate financial-service markets, and due to his negligence in controlling monetary trade, bad lending and Wall Street scams were generated that later culminated to the serious banking crisis in 2007.” Such failures made Clinton’s critics hate him for preventing market failures.

Critics of Clinton also disliked the education programs and reforms that his administration undertook. They deemed at as a fail because it failed to consider quality education standards for all states that reside in America. The impact of this program varied according to states, and hence failed to improve the quality of education to all American students. Opponents of Clinton opposed him for failing to meet education demands.

Animosity against the Clinton’s regime was also created when his administration implemented a faulty and non-realistic environmental policy. The Clinton’s administration passed the North American Free Trade Agreement despite the fact that it encouraged trading at relatively lower environmental standards. This policy immediately generated  negative side effects, and resulted in air pollution on the Mexico/US border which cost the government over $15 billion to eradicate. According to experts, “In addition, Clinton’s environmental policies did not seem to favor most citizens, especially after assenting to the `1995 measure to allow logging of the American natural forest.” The laws made by the Clinton administration heavily affected the environment leading to environmental degradation and encroachments of the natural forest. These reasons led to hatred of Clinton’s regime and opposition. Other areas where President Clinton was criticized over included; failure to meet the required standards in public health sectors and poor foreign policy litigation that led to the death of over 18 American troops.

Literature Review must clearly  show the views of different scholars say about Bill Clinton in terms of the 4 p’s

President Clinton and his entire administration were mainly motivated by the 4p’s principles in running administrative functions in the USA and this was based on the process of peace, power, prosperity and principles. Application of these four principles in relation to Clinton’s administration has attracted both criticism and praise from different scholars. When taking into consideration retention of power, some critics have argued that Clinton’s security reforms were insufficient and did not enable the party to retain power and control. Instead, the retention of power was done through coercion and not the free will and choices made by the American Citizens.  On the other hand, another school of thought is of the opinion that Clinton was successful in his bid for a second term showing clearly that his regime had retained power for the Democratic party.  The fact that this was the second time in history after Roosevelt that a democrat had succeeded in running for a second time showed that Clinton’s reforms had effectively helped the party to retain power. Each school of thought has its own outline of the pros and cons of Clinton’s administration and reforms.

The economic prosperity principle is yet another policy framework that Clinton achieved as the USA president. Many scholars laud Clinton for economic reforms and regard this as his greatest achievement as President because it affected both the economy and social welfare positively. According to most scholars, “Clinton’s administrative framework fostered for reforms in social and economic institutions,   which led to general improvements in the people’s social and economic welfares.” Clinton’s regime succeeded in improving social welfare by creating jobs and reducing poverty index. However, health and education were the key sectors left out in the Clinton’s administration success.

The principle of peace and relative calm were key pursuits in Clinton’s administration. Many reforms such as passing of the Crime Bill, increasing the number of policemen and tightening security both within and outside American borders were implemented. Scholars have argued about the effectiveness of using security reforms to enhance peace..

Finally, the last principle refers to the use of personal principles in administering the country whereby the Democratic Party applied its flagship principles tin administering and governing the country. Scholars argue that the Clinton’s administration took advantage of the low number of republicans in the congress and passed favorable key policies in the administration of the country.

President Bill Clinton Focused More on Becoming a Prosperous Nation and Maintaining Peaceful Relations Instead of Power and Principles.

The formulation of this hypothesis is considered in line with President Bill Clinton’s concerted efforts to achieve the principles set out in the 4ps and how effective they were in ensuring that he outmatched his republican predecessor. This can easily be measured by looking at his scorecard and according to scholars,  “Here there is consideration of two major parameters that are inscribed within the 4ps policy model.”. This hypothesis can be analyzed in the context within which Bill Clinton is believed to have advocated for peace and prosperity as opposed to struggling for power. In the main hypothesis, it can be justifiably stated that Clinton’s regime focused on social and economic reforms as opposed to selfish ambition and power struggle. This element is attributed to Clinton’s efforts through his ruling party in championing for security reforms.The fall in crime rate experienced under Clinton’s regime is an attestation to the fact that he truly pursued peace and economic reforms for service and not selfish ambition. It is possible for any party to put up peace as one of its goals in its manifesto yet the efforts that Clinton’s administration made to achieve this goal differentiates the regime. This makes the first hypothesis valid. In fact experts add that apart from the social and economic reforms “the quest for power and dominance came automatically when Clinton sailed through past his opponent, thereby repeating a historical presidential reelection.” This became the second time in history for a Democrat to serve two terms and is a fact that was repeated during President Barack Obama’s re-election.  In terms of test and application, the first hypothesis can therefore be regarded as  positive; while the null is invalid in this scenario.

The second hypothesis states that President Clinton concentrated all his efforts towards ensuring that America would become a prosperous and stable nation, and did not focus on amassing power and championing for his self-motivated political agenda. This second hypothesis is considered as true and validly applies in the American case. While prosperity was one of Bill Clinton’s flagships, America experienced some economic hurdles during his first tenure in office and economic indicators showed a decline in the economy during this period. This situation changed upon his inauguration as the President and experts state that “One significant perspective that generated this involves Clinton’s efforts in realizing growth, to an extent that the country’s GDP and overall performance increased even as America gained stability.” The economic progress was clearly evident when America’s deficit was transformed into surplus by the time Bill Clinton left office. The health sector was one of the areas that showed better performances because of the improved new insurance policies.

With all these evidences, it is justifiable to conclude that President Bill Clinton was indeed motivated to to prosper the American nation.  The intention of a president can be measured by his service to the citizens. “With the best result achieved during Clinton’s administration, it can thus be justified that his aim was solely aimed at ensuring the prosperity of the American citizens rather than his self-interest and quest to retain power.” Both the hypotheses clearly indicate the economic and social progress witnessed in America during Bill Clinton’s regime. Bill Clinton made great achievements in science and technology, which is an indication of the good progress ever experienced in the America social institution hence showing the truth of the second hypothesis.  In addition, the fact that Clinton’s administration pursued peace and prosperity for the American people shows that their goals superseded power ambitions. “Relevance of the two hypotheses equally lies within the confinement of vast and robust economic progress attained in America.” Clinton’s administration clearly improved the welfare of the American people and it was thus a successful regime. Therefore, I summarize this essay by stating that both the stated hypotheses tested positive because Bill Clinton’s presidency was the beginning of social and economic success in America.

 

Bibliography

Berman, William C. From the center to the edge: the politics and policies of the Clinton presidency. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001.

Clinton, Bill, and Alvin Z. Rubinstein. The Clinton foreign policy reader: presidential speeches with commentary. Armonk, NY [u.a.]: Sharpe, 2000.

Clinton, Bill, and Stephen A. Smith. Preface to the presidency: selected speeches of Bill Clinton 1974-1992. Fayetteville: Univ. of Arkansas Press, 1996.

Columbus, Frank H. Book reviews on presidents and the presidency. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2008.

Gertz, Bill. Betrayal. Washington: Regnery Pub, 2001.

Gillon, Steven M. The pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the rivalry that defined a generation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Hamilton, Nigel. Bill Clinton: an American journey. New York: Ballantine Books, 2004.

Hohenberg, John. 1994. The Bill Clinton story: winning the presidency. [Syracuse, NY]: Syracuse Univ. Press.

Hyland, William. Clinton’s world: remaking American foreign policy. Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Praeger, 1999.

Klein, Joe. 2002. The natural: the misunderstood presidency of Bill Clinton. New York: Broadway Books.

Levin, Robert E. Bill Clinton: 1992, the inside story. New York, NY: 1992, S.P.I. Books

Lowry, Rich. 2003. Legacy: paying the price for the Clinton years. Washington, DC: Regnery Pub.

Metz, Allan. 2002. Bill Clinton: a bibliography. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

Renshon, Stanley Allen. 1996. High hopes: the Clinton presidency and the politics of ambition. New York: New York University Press.

Rumsch, BreAnn. 2009. Bill Clinton. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub. Co. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=403158.

Timperlake, Edward, and II, William C. Triplett. 2013. Year of the Rat How Bill Clinton and Al Gore Compromised U.S. Security for Chinese Cash. Washington DC: Regnery Publishing. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=1125025.

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