Evolution of a Broken Regional Order
The Carnegie Middle East Center, established by Carnegie Endowment in 2006 is an open examination center located in Beirut and Lebanon to the purpose of international peace. Championed by its director Paul Salem, the center handles many huddles experienced in the political and economic development and to change the Arab Middle East to ensure full comprehension of complex issues surrounding the region.
This paper is therefore a summary of the research studies examining how Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia and other Middle East nations handle threats, realized opportunities following the September 11 attack in the US and how the events have enhanced their policies in relevance with changing developments.
The Middle East patented in the 20th century from Western diplomatic parlance and it constituted Eastern Mediterranean and India. Britain in 1882 occupied Egypt and secured other alliances in the Persian Gulf region. Britain also reversed its old policy to take over Arab provinces and destroy the Ottoman Empire. The changed structures and balances were also modified after the cold war and it included various prominent non existing elements.
Opponents of Israel did not plan the Arab-Israel war any further because Israel was at peace with Egypt. As a result, the powers of Syria in Lebanon were legalized and its role identified and advanced to suzerainty. Saudi Arabia also helped in finance scheme management and ensured maintenance of Arab consensus.
Germany, France and Britain were also not able to maintain colonialism effects in the Middle East following the depletion of Western Europe in the Second World War because the United States of America and later on the Soviet Union were global system superpowers. European colonialism termination also led to territorial peace or independence of Arab nations.
Oil discovery in the Middle East states was also a significant independence approach with immediate effect in such countries. being the most advanced Arab community state structures, Egypt’s narrowed ideological strategy as well as strong leadership skills under the assistance and influence of Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Soviet Union resisted western influence to promote unity in Arab countries. Nasser’s success in Suez Canal nationalization and sustenance of Anglo-French-Israel war welcomed him to global stardom.
Even so, his death in 1970 marked the end of regional politics domination by Egypt paving way to tripartite of Saudi Arabia, Syria and Egypt. Some of the most powerful leaders in Egypt including Sadat and Assad planned attacks on Israel to embargo oil from the west. The purpose of the move was to scare away Israel’s political intransigence, threaten the west to pounder Israel to cooperate and allocate peaceful land deal requirements.
The Middle East in the 80s and 90s was multiple located with different power balances. Multi-polarity features also cropped up due to the defeat and demise of Nasser in 1967, economic power change from Egypt to Saudi Arabia as well as growth of new ideological bipolarity that led to sacred traditionalism.
Additionally, advanced indirect and direct improvements from adjustments in U.S policy have also affected with power balances and inter-state relations in the Middle East. The magnitude of September 11 terrorist attack in the United States also led to significant foreign currency changes yielding a neoconservative agenda thus, enhancing preemptive intervention, unilateralism and a clear view of Islamic terrorism as a major security challenge to the United States of America.
The USA in the post September 11 period focused on invasion of Afghanistan, a move that did not affect the Middle East directly. Many Islamic countries and Arab communities during the period strongly condemned the attacks offering intelligence and material support to the US and as a result, many did not oppose invasion of Afghanistan.
Structural changes in the second phase following Iraq and US invasions shuttered the Middle East leading instant consequences. The US military planned the Iraq war as a stepping stone to fight Syria and Iran where US allies were forced to democratize in the area, as it was a growth period for the allies in the Middle East.
In conclusion, changeability and unsteady conditions that have had long term internal and external effects in the Middle East nations have been depressed to denote orders. British had vision, British dominated and the Post-Ottoman Middle East and thus, power sharing with French and Turkey as fate would have it after withdrawal of British power lead to colonial unrest in Iraq and Palestine and Egypt took a different direction.
Through the Baghdad effect in 1955, the United States of America, made attempts to impose powers but cold war rivalry, Soviet Union and domestic opposition pivoted by Nasser destroyed the ideas.