PoliticalDevelopment of China and India
Many scholars regard India and China as the ancient states of political civilization. As shown in many documentations, the economies of these countries sprung up from the immense wealth and wisdom they had as early as 18th century (Crookes 12) which made them dominate over the European economy. The dynamics of democracy in India and China have been marked by great diversity in class, religion, culture, and beliefs have led to many transformations within the political landscapes of these nations since they became democratic republics (Crookes 12). Liberty and equity factors have resulted in recessions in many aspects of these countries. Due to these factors, the countries have experienced a mixture of little success and greater challenges in the past five decades, generatingsatisfaction and doubt in the working of democratic governance(Acemoglu et al 76)
Challenges Posed By Liberty and Equity in India and China
Political scholars state that liberty and equity have posed enormous challenges to the countries that have decided to adopt their function. China has presented a unique ideological challenge on political leadership, which many scholars refer to as “illiberalism.”(Crookes 143). The model which uses the negative double standards comprises both external and internal elements as it provides a recipe for domestic governance for conducting internal relations (Crookes 55). Over the last 25 years China’spolitical leadership has developed a strategy that has shownthe inability to achieve economic growth and poverty recovery and control (Acemoglu et al 128).
This could be attributed to diverse challenges that the country has undergone over the past years. Such challenges may include the Tiananmen Square massacre which took heavy toll on humanity and created other life threatening catastrophes. Despite the lack of documentary records to show the exact death toll, it is estimated that over 1,700 people died during this massacre while over 60,000 were seriously injured. Over a quarter a million people were affected overall and this challenge diminished the Chinese economy with over 45%, hence creating a situation of questionable proper economic and democratic recovery for the country (Acemoglu et al 129).
In India, liberalization has put a lot of pressure on parties to form policies that unite the state based on the principles of market economy and avoid policies that uphold the principle of socialism (Crookes 33). Today, India’s political strength, maturity, and the democratic values that sustain its democracy have continually performed dismally when viewed from the global politics perspective. Political institutions such as the executive, judiciary and legislature have failed to support the democracy rule and even with liberty, the government cannot succeed in managingthe country crippled with poverty, illiteracy, and social inequities rating. The emergence of new parties and dissolution of old ones, including those that appear to lack proper political ideologies, have drained the country’s resources (Acemoglu et al 120). The high population of India that is estimated to be over a billion people has made it difficult for the government to institute democracy and weakened its capacity to provide basic issues such as education, food and healthcare. This has limited efforts towards democracy because a population can only be monitored by the consent of the people or masses. As also observed, India is still an emerging economy, and the sluggish pace at which it is growing can be attributed to its initial orientation that was based on social principles; this has effectively hindered the country from achieving democracy (Crookes 155).
Solution to the Challenges of Political Liberty and Equity
Political analysts havestated that it is difficult to even imagine India being organized into an enduring single state of federal and democratic political rule given its multicultural diversity. The last five decades have witnessed failed negotiations and attempts at democracies including political elections (Crookes 45). China and India should learn from their experiences about the role of democracy in the economic growth and stability of countries. Democracy is only been possible throughaccommodating people’s demands, regardless of ethnicity and diversity of power (Crookes 155)
China hasadopted a technique of rejecting liberal notions. In fact, scholars have observed that China has used these techniques to make itself an international exporter of ideas to nations that are weary of democratic liberalism (Crookes 156). It is thereforeeminent that both China and India have transitioned due to their different and unique leadership styles. The open practice by China of“illiberal” sovereignty, which is typical of anti-democratic and repressive practices, has yielded better results in terms of economic growth and stability.On the other hand, by adopting a liberal, democratic type of governance, India has been able to rise as an economic power in Asia, with a stable and successful coexistence of economic practices.
Crookes, Paul C. I. Intellectual Property Regime Evolution in China and India: Technological, Political, and Social Drivers of Change. Leiden: Brill, 2010. Print. Pp.1-214
Acemoglu, Daron, and James, Robinson. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. London, Profile Books, 2012. Print.Pp. 1-300