Applying Organizational Psychology
Organizational psychology can be defined as the study of the conduct of individuals in the organizational set up. This includes the process of socialization and recruitment from the viewpoint of the applicant and that of the organization. This contributes to enhanced performance in the organization through the improvement of staffs’ performance, security, workforce’s wellbeing and commitment (Schein 1970).
There are different methods that different organizations implement to attract more qualified workers. While looking for employees, organizations aim at identifying potential workers who will contribute to their success. There are two steps of the recruitment process. These are selection of appropriate recruitment techniques and recruitment planning (Schein 1970).
In this step, the required number of job applicants is identified, the exact time when newly recruited employees should report and availability of the potential candidates for the job in the current labor market. These are all important aspects of the recruitment process since they enhance effectiveness in the recruitment process. A successful recruitment plan must be aligned with the strategic plan of the company. Strategic plan is the entire plan of the future prospects of the company and how it intends or plans to achieve the set strategic goals. Succession planning should also be considered by the entire recruitment plan. This includes predictions of possible turnover in different positions (Jex & Britt, 2008). In most cases, the focus of succession planning is on projected retirements. However, it can include the temporary members of the company’s staff as well as workers who have expressed their intention to leave. Usually, it enables a company to focus on recruiting potential applicants who have the ability to fill positions that will be left vacant.
During recruitment, organizations should conduct an inventory of the skills that current staff members posses. This can help in the evaluation of the existing abilities among the employees in order to determine whether there are staff members who can be suitable candidates for the available or vacant positions. Promoting and hiring employees internally has several benefits because it helps in saving cost. Finally, labor supply’s assessment should also be considered for a specific job category. Companies ought to get data from different government agencies about labor supply in a specific profession. Such information will enable the company to determine whether there is plentiful or scarce labor supply. This will enable them to plan their recruitment accordingly (Jex, 2002).
Selection of the Recruitment Methods
While identifying the right methods for recruiting employees, it is crucial that organizations assess external and internal sources. Normally, internal recruitment gives a company a cost-effective recruitment method. It also motivates the existing company’s employees. Additionally, no much training is involved when a company recruits employees internally. Usually, external recruitment brings new standpoint and skills to an organization. It increases the number of the qualified employees in the organization. A company can use different recruiting sources that include employment agencies, programs for referral incentives and advertising among others. In addition to the cost aspect of both external and internal sources, companies should also assess various sources’ utility. Organizations employ two major indicators when it comes to determining the appropriate recruitment source. These are lapse time data and yield ratios. Yield ratio is the number of job seekers that the company gets from a recruiting source against the qualified employees. Lapse time data comprises of the time that the entire recruitment process is estimated to take (Jex, 2002).
Job seekers usually conduct personal assessment of potential employers in order to determine whether they can apply for a job in a company. Usually, applicants look for data to ensure that the offered position matches their values and qualifications. Essentially, applicants should look for employers who fit their qualifications the most in order to increase job motivation and satisfaction. It is equally important that applicants consider the company’s cultural compatibility with their individual personality. Every company has a culture that it always cultivates. This comprises of a general mindset and specific values that guide the staff members’ behavior. Generally, recruitment from the viewpoint of the applicant entails seeking information in order to determine the company or position that fits them the most depending on their worth and abilities (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Using the principles of organizational psychology is very important during the entire recruitment process. These principles are vital when it comes to selecting new members of a company’s staff, ensuring that only individuals who fit in the company apply for the job and that the company also fits applicants. Usually, companies that applicants believe that they are compatible with skills that they possess, their traits, values and cultures attract them. In most cases, employees achieve higher levels of job commitment while working in a set up where the other employees possess comparable talents, principles, morals and education (Jex & Britt, 2008). Using the organizational psychology principles during recruitment is usually advantageous when applicants feel that the interviewers know the advertised position properly and if they receive a respectable and professional treatment. The image that companies portray during recruitment, advertisement and business websites are important since they can pessimistically influence the views of job seekers towards them (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Organizational socialization is the transition from a non-member’s role to a member of an organization’s staff. This socialization process entails several stages which new members go through as well as the tactics that they use during this process. It also enhances the adjustment of new members to the new organizational setting (Jex, 2002). The process of organizational socialization has 6 dimensions through which new members understand the company’s organization as well as the skills that are related to their job.
- History-This entails understanding the traditions of the company
- Language-This involves familiarizing with the terminologies that are used in the organization that only staff members are familiar with.
- Politics-Recognizing different regulations of the organization
- People-Developing positive working relationships with staff members
- Values and goals-Assimilating to different values and goals of the organization in order to possess them.
- Performance proficiency-Becoming a team player
In addition to these organizational socialization dimensions, there are four stages that include anticipatory socialization process: this occurs during recruitment and before one joins the company, encounter; this is the period when the new staff member joins the company officially, acquisition and change state; this is the time when a new member attains comfort with their roles as well as the culture of the company, socialization; this entails socialization’s success assessment, employing affective and behavioral outcomes (Jex & Britt, 2008).
There are different methods that are used by different organizations to assist their new members throughout the process of organizational socialization. A company can choose to socialize new workers individually or in a group. Different programs such as formal training can be used to conduct socialization formally. It can also be informal such as on-the-job training. The socialization approaches of an organization can be variable or fixed. Fixed tactics comprise of the expectation of the time of transitions. With variable tactics, new members are not informed about the time of the transition.
There are disjunctive and serial socialization techniques as well. Serial techniques involve training of new members by the experienced staffs. Experienced staffs train them on how they should assume different positions in the organization. In reality, there are no role models that are used in disjunctive technique. Finally, organizational socialization can be disventure or inventure. While employing inventure methods, a company stresses unique values and skills that members introduce in the company. Disventure methods aim at molding new members in order to align them with the existing company’s traditions (Jex, 2002).
When an organization employs organizational psychology principle in order to adjust socialization tactics, it manages to create an organizational identity that new members can adapt. This increases productivity. When an organization succeeds in establishing a set up where personal values of staff members are in line with the objectives and goals of the organization, the commitment of staff members to the company as well as their job satisfaction improves. The result of this is an increase in the bottom line of the organization (Jex, 2002).
Jex, S. M. (2002). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Jex, S. M., & Britt, T. W. (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Schein, E. H. (1970). Organizational psychology (pp. 187-213). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.