Job Specialization and Job Characteristic Model
Job specialization is a tool that is used by organization to enhance their focus on particular tasks, thereby impacting efficiency and productivity. However, specialization gives room for boredom and dissatisfaction among workers. Going by the job characteristics model, the employees can be motivated to perform better in their jobs and acquire satisfaction, feel appreciated to be part of the organization.
Modification of Specialized Jobs Using the Job Characteristic Model (JCM)
One of the strategies that can be applied towards increasing job satisfaction through JCM is task identity. This creates a sense of appreciation in the part of employees since responsibilities assigned to them have to be completed by the same worker. Besides, this characteristic merged with autonomy to carry out their duties without interference creates a sense of independence, appreciation and trust on the part of employees. This results into increased levels of motivation for the employees to conduct their duties without micromanagement. It also offers them the opportunity of perfecting their skills and knowledge since they complete tasks on their own and exploit their potential. Finally, the companies could come up with a feedback mechanism for ensuring that employees are either rewarded for their hard work, or given positive comments if they display exemplary performance.
Job specialization usually pins employees down to a routine that could ultimately become boring and without any challenge. The application of job characteristics model acts as a means of increasing the motivation levels in the company so that employees can work harder and become more proactive and productive. Through the adoption of the five dimensions of JCM, the organization is able to transform the job structure of the employee, which could present new and more challenging roles and responsibilities for the employees. Such would work towards alleviating boredom and job dissatisfaction.
Summary of Journal Articles
Grant, M.A, Yitzhak, F and Tina J, Chapter 13: Work matters: job design in classic and contemporary perspectives.
Aim and Purpose of the Article
This article is aimed at analyzing the impacts of job designs like specialization on the output of employees. Besides, it outlines some methodologies that can be employed in order to enhance job enrichment and satisfaction.
Data Collection and Analysis
Data was collected and retrieved through other credible peer reviewed publications on the subject of job design. It outlines distinctions from different articles and analyzes their importance and effectiveness in addressing the topic issues.
Based on this article, job design and characteristics are influenced by a variety of factors that could result into the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees with work. Thus, the different methodologies applied for job enrichment and motivation have varying degrees of success and setbacks.
Significance of the Article
This article clearly indicates that there are various kinds of job design under which specialization falls. It also shows that there are several methodologies and mechanisms that can be applied in enhancing job motivation and enrichment.
Strengths of Article
The article has got a wealth of knowledge and analysis that offers different views about the research topic.
Weakness of the Article
The article does not have well articulated statistics or studies on the subject and instead, is reliant on other data acquired from other surveys.
Quote 1: ‘’When jobs were enriched through this strategy, most of the effects were beneficial over a period of time. Employees were more satisfied, there were reduced cases of overloads, fewer errors were committed and customers were accorded better services. These findings were supportive of the original arguments by Herzberg (1996) and Hackman and Oldham (1980) that organizations and their employees may earn greater benefits from job enrichment compare to job enlargement’’ (Grant, Yitzhak and Tina, 425).
Quote 2: Finally, feedback from others covers the extent to which workers get information regarding their performance from other people (Grant, Yitzhak and Tina, 429).
Quote 3: Even though past research had considered task significance as a feature of the work that gives the employees the ability to look at their duties as more meaningful (Hackman & Oldham, 1976: Morgeson & Humphrey, 2006), Grant (2007) was of the idea that task significance is also a relational job characteristic since it links up employees to the effect of their actions on others (Grant, Yitzhak and Tina, 430).
Cordery, L.J, Wall, D.T and Parker, K.S, 2001, ‘’Future work design research and practice towards an elaborate model of work design,’’ Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 74, 413-440.
Aim and Purpose
This article is targeted at drawing parallels that exist between past and present work characteristics and their impact in the changing work environment.
Data Collection and Analysis
Data was collected and retrieved through the use of other credible peer reviewed articles and books on the subject of work characteristics. It outlines the parallels for different articles and undertakes an analysis of their importance and effectiveness in addressing the topic.
Based on this article, the changes experienced in the social, cultural, economical and technological circles across the globe have affected the work characteristics that define employee job design. Thus, the work characteristics have to adapt newly formulated techniques that can ensure motivation and job enrichment.
Significance of the Article
The article indicates that the job characteristics model entails a variety of factors that determine its effectiveness at the time of implementation. One of these factors covered in this article is the impact of time and the changing norms and attitudes in society.
Strengths of Article
The article points out that the JCM is not easy to implement without considering other important factors. This means that for job satisfaction and motivation to be achieved, the management needs to emphasize on the traditionally used methods for JCM and also some of the contemporary factors.
Weakness of Article
The article does not have surveys or statistics that are well articulated on the subject and instead, relies on data obtained from other surveys.
Quote 1: ‘’The theory, however, spurred the concept of job enrichment, which was succinctly regarded as specifically building into people’s jobs, greater scope for personal achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work, and additional opportunities for improvement and growth. This key element of job enrichment remains a current issue (Cordery, Wall and Parker, 2001, 415).
Quote 2: ‘’Work design theory has on many occasions been criticized for failure in taking into account the factors that influence and constrain the choice of work design. Such factors can be internally evident in the company, like the style of management, technology, nature of the tasks, information systems, human resource practices, strategy, history and culture. For instance, a directive style of management, an assembly line technology, or intensive monitoring of performance can each work towards straining the autonomy of employees (Cordery, Wall and Parker, 2001, 419)
Cordery, L. J., Wall, D. T., and Parker, K. S., 2001, ‘Future work design research and practice toward an elaborate model of work design’, Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 74, 413-440.
Grant, M. A., Yitzhak, F., and Tina, J., Chapter 13:- work matters: job design in classic and contemporary perspectives.
Hackman, J. R. and Oldham, G. R., 2010, Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 31, issue 2-3, pp. 463-479.
Nahrgang, D. J., Humphrey, E. S. and Morgeson, P. F., 2007, Integrating Social and Motivational Models of Work Design: A Meta-Analytic Summary and Theoretical Extension of the Work Design Literature
U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, Federal Employee Engagement: the motivating potential of Job Characteristics and rewards, A Report to the President and the Congress of the United States by the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, November 2012, Washington, DC.