Effects of Stalin’s Regime on the Film Industry
There were several changes that came about in the film industry due to the revolution of the Soviet community. The shift in the Soviet Union involved different people including the Russians. Cultural institutions were endorsed during that time while firm controls were introduced. The period of the revolution involved varying attitudes towards artists and artwork in relation to major styles, freedom and artistic culture.
Initially, freedom of the artists was limited to some extent and this made them to flee to Russia. This happened because the Bolshevik regime was opposed by writers. Before shifting to Cultural Revolution by Stalin, Lenin expressed concerns regarding artwork. He was opposed to the new film industry’s developments. Instead, he advocated for the traditional means and ways of approaching the cinematography industry. He established the New Western Art Museum with an aim of controlling artistic content and works.
During Lenin’s era, several art studies emerged in many cities. Apart from raising sympathy, this encouraged more artists to participate in the activities of the industry. Several vigorous authors also emerged including Vladimir, Gorky and Maxim. This impacted on the art culture of the Soviet positively because it increased traditional schools and others. Nevertheless, this did not last for long. Several changes in the film sector occurred during the era of Stalin. The aim of this paper is to highlight the changes as well as their impact.
There is a great significant of the film sector because of its aim of encouraging, educating and influencing the citizens. As such, states ought to support this industry as a way of reducing illiteracy. The film industry was struck greatly by Joseph Stalin when he imposed controls over realism and styles. This created a reserve for all trends in the socialists’ work.
Many writers were imprisoned and killed during the Stalin’s era. Isaac Babel, a Russian journalist and writer was an example of the writers who died while in the police custody. The prisoners’ art works were confiscated. Some of these works were destroyed while others were published later. During Stalin’s era, the cinema settings of the Soviet society experienced positive developments especially prior the World War II. The emphasis of the traditional schools that were established then was complete control of this sector. The communists’ opinion in regards to the difficulties and inefficiencies facing the film sector was also adopted by Stalin. This could be seen when making economic and social decisions.
The industry almost collapsed due to defensive mentality’s adoption in the Soviet film sector when it came to the volume produced and creativity. The defensive perception attempted to drive the pre-existing and political film structures. This provided hard to do. The results were attempts to defend the Soviet powers and communists’ ideologies which may have otherwise been considered fraudulent.
Degrading policies also emerged in the film industry during this era. The result of this was a failure by the system to convince the masses that the system was legal and also to influence them so that they can consider the film industry as entertaining and educative. Thus, the masses were not prepared to get and view bureaucratic administrators’ films. The implication of this was a breakdown in the passage of political information that movies encrypted.
Entertainment aspects were undermined by political films. Thus, they never benefited the audience and political parties. The cinema idea had big blows for millions following the centralization and micromanagement of the sector. This was due to the difficulties experienced by most artists while trying to access art studios as well as production resources. The introduction of censorship bodies suppressed artists’ creativity. The major aim was contravened by the policies that were formulated with an aim of assisting artists. For instance, the goal of the Union of Cinema Personnel was to bring artists together and to ensure their common growth. However, it became a way of conveying political instructions among workers in the film industry.
Some freedom levels for new workers in the film industry were achieved during the Stalin’s era. However, this did not succeed in helping them find jobs. As such, the cinema’s industry revolution did not give graduates more secure jobs. Instead, it replaced the existing professionals.
Political content was also adopted by the artistic shift during the Cultural Revolution of the Stalin’s era. As such, making films that had political content while delighting the audience became possible. Despite the fact that ruling and destroying the reliable works was left to a few elite, Grigori Alexandrov, a playwright was able to produce The Circus film with a political message. Other similar films included Medvedkin’s Happiness and Raizman’s The Last Night.
New musical ideologies and genre were brought about by the debate on sound film. This increased shelved movies because of an increase in government’s control and interventions. Eventually, the film industry was evacuated to Central Asia with an aim of exercising extra control as well as achieving more centralization. The belief of Stalin was that it would be better to make few masterpieces films. He aimed at focusing on individual producers of film after which the best would be rated. Stalin introduced a conservative principle that paid focused on the best movie directors only. Consequently, there was less concentration on the best directors and colleagues. Upcoming artists would have been developed by shared experience. This reduced studios’ work thereby causing scarcity of future artists and co-workers.
Another change factor in the film sector was about content translation, publication and republication. The greatest developments and achievements were seen during Stalin’s era in the industry. During the era, art work republication was prohibited. Some developments made during this era included the achievement of political and artistic facets during the war period which had less attention due to the inaccessibility of the films. During this era, the Russians attempted to re-use low-quality movies through advanced editions as a way of strengthening the industry as well as expressing ideas via more sensible ways.
Revolution of the Stalin’s era occurred from the late 20’s to the early 30’s. At this time, he was ruling under pressure while forcing artists and families to adopt socialist realism. Every livelihood was affected by the cultural changes of the time because of the economic policies that were established via a wicked process. The Soviet Union turned authoritarian at that time because the bad costs that was imposed on the human lives. To achieve industrialization drive, Stalin embraced horrible leadership and actions that ruined the independence that the Russians were enjoying.
The belief of the Stalin’s administration was that industrialization was achievable if all people were educated. As such, more educational programs were established with an aim of equipping citizens with skills that would enable them to get employments. Political information as well as propaganda was necessary for this process. This made the film sector a vital medium for such communication and resources mobilization. Disbandment of some artistic groups was done with an aim of leaving a few loyal groups. Portraitures, reports, genres and landscape painting were presented during for industrial functions. Hence, they were free from thoughts.
Artists from the Academy eagerly wanted to present and experiment their artwork following the war. All artworks presented at the time comprised of creative ideas and human life’s taste. In signifying an oppressive Stalin’s regime, the first congress of the Soviet artists by the Russian recognized all artists unions. Artists had many constructive figures, images and topics that realized the major objectives of the production and eventual presentation of cinema. As such, artists had a better understanding of the realism aspect of Stalin. This broadened resolute and creative possibilities. It also changed the cultural issues in terms of films’ reproduction and interpretation for excellent impressions and expression.
Other industries were also improved during the Stalin’s regime in the Soviet industry but the cinema field was depressed. The introduced central planning mandated the participants in the industry to eradicate avant-garde practices while adopting socialism realism. The style provided organized storytelling with heroes expected to serve as the role models that the citizens could emulate in supporting the culture of the communists.
Aesthetic policies were also restrained by scrupulous censorship of Soyuzkino which led to several inflexible and prescribed films. Actually, they succeeded in supporting masses view’s factual cinema. Both entertainment and political interest concerns were achieved by the Chapayev cinema. Title character was humanized by the film since it gave him humorous intellect, forceful appeal and private mannerism. This provided the audience with inspiration and will for watching it severally.
The movie industry of the Soviet society was able to endure during the World War II. Apart from coping with financial losses and harsh material during the war, the government fastened collective restriction and control as a way of handling the effects of the exposure of the citizens of the Western countries.
The film industry in the Soviet society had the least movies produced at the time because of the poor conditions. The era of Stalin had more films produced in an attempt to involve children and produce stereoscopic movies. This ruined the film sector. The resolution of the Council of Ministers affected the industry further because it criticized the artists who sought quality over quantity. According to the council, every produced film had to promote the communist ideologies and the Soviet system.
As such, the ultimate decision on what could be viewed was to be made by Stalin. Many artists were killed by the regime because it took long time for a move to be screened. Most theaters were idle and eventually closed. Severe content restrictions, centralized and complex authorization procedures also drove away film writers. Developing quality movies was also difficult due to the prescription of the 1948 ruling.
Film theaters had difficulties in fulfilling the increasing appetencies of the audiences of the Soviet society for movies as well as coping with the scarce artworks produced by the studios. Thus, same and long stage viewing characterized the era due to inadequate film production. This was caused by the harsh conditions of the Stalin’s film industry that pushed artists out of the studios. New films drew more people. The situation led to foreign movies’ screening despite having more rebellious content than Soviet films.
In a nut shell, it is evident that the new policies by Stalin had dire effects on the film industry in the Soviet society. This could be seen from the leniency that was depicted towards the overseas films because of audience pressures as well as the need for finances for supporting the government. As such, this resulted in viewing of the anti-collective films that were against the master goal that Stalin had of influencing the citizens so that they can have a socialism way of thinking.