Sample Essay on Battle of the Atlantic (1939-1945)
Battle of the Atlantic (1939-1945) refers to a military campaign that took place during the Second World War. The campaign was one of the longest and continuous campaigns taking place from 1939 until when Germany was defeated in 1945. Blockade of Germany of the Allied naval was at the core of the campaign. It was announced a day after war was declared and the subsequent counter blockade of the Germany.
The battle of the Atlantic was at the peak from the mid 1940 until 1943. U-boats, Luftwaffe aircraft, and Kriegsmarine warships were pitted against Royal Canadian Navy, Allied merchant and Royal Navy shipping.
Convoys that were coming mainly from the North America while predominantly going to the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom were protected by the Canadian and British air forces and navies. Aircraft and ships from the United States aided these forces from 13th September 1941. Submarines from the Italian Royal Navy joined the Germans after Axis ally; Italy joined the war on 10th June 1940.
The United Kingdom being an island nation was greatly dependent on the imported goods. It required over a million tons of the imported material every week to continue fighting and survive. Battle of the Atlantic was more of a tonnage war. It was an allied struggle for supplying Britain and attempt by the Axis to stop merchant shipping flow that made it possible for Britain to continue fighting.
Since 1942 onwards, Germans were also trying to prevent the establishment of the Allied supplies as well as British Isles equipment in preparation for invading the occupied Europe. Later, Winston Churchill stated that the defeat of the threat U-boat acted as a pre-requisite which pushed the Germans back.
Battle of the Atlantic acted as the dominating factor during the war. At no time did the fighting sides forget what was happening elsewhere in the land, in air and at sea because the outcome of the war depended on it. For Allies, the battle outcome was strategic victory for them. This is because German blockade did not succeed but it was rather a great loss.
175 warships and 3,500 merchant ships were sunk for 783 U-boats lost. Winston Churchill coined the term Battle of the Atlantic in February 1941. This naval battle has been described as the largest, most complex and longest in history of battles. It lasted for six years starting immediately the European war started and thousands of war ships were involved.
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