Kingdom of Bohemia
Initially, the Kingdom of Bohemia was located in the Bohemia region in Central Europe and its territory included the modern day Czech Republic. It was a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire and the Prince Elector was the King of the empire till its dissolution which took place in 1806.
Many of the Bohemia Kings were elected Holy Roman Emperors. Prague was the capital of Bohemia and it effectively served as the center of Holy Roman Empire till the late 14th century, the end of 16th century and the beginning of 17th century. From 1526, the Bohemia Kingdom was ruled continuously by the House of Habsburg and the successor was Habsburg Lorraine.
Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the area became part of Habsburg’s larger Austrian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867. Bohemia retained its formal status as a separate kingdom which was known as a crown land within Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prague was the leading city.
During the last years of Austria-Hungary, Bohemia was the most economically prosperous and advanced crown land. Czech language was the main language used in the region and the only nobility till1627.
Though some former rulers of Bohemia had enjoyed a royal non-hereditary title during the 11th and 12th centuries, the kingdom was established formally by Premysl Ottokar I in 1198 that had his status acknowledged by Phillip of Swabia. He got elected as the king of the Romans and in return, he had to offer support against rival Emperor Otto IV.
In 1204, the royal status of Premysl’s was accepted not only by Otto IV but Pope Innocent III as well. Officially, it was recognized in 2012 by the Golden Bull of Sicily which was issued by Emperor Fredrick II and which confirmed the Duchy of Bohemia to Kingdom status.
Under the new terms, the Czech King was going to be exempted from all future obligations to the Holy Roman Empire expect in terms of participating in imperial councils. In order to ensure his son would inherit his throne, Ottokar established inheritance by male inclination primogeniture.
Before this new rule, the old one indicated the first child, regardless of their gender had the right to rule the country. During the 14th century, Charles IV had control over the reins in power and this period is termed as the golden age in the history of the Czech Republic. In 1306, the line of Premyslid died out after a series of dynasty wars which saw John, Count of Luxembourg elected as the Bohemian King.
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