Russian revolution refers to a collective term that is used in describing several revolutions that took place in 1917 in Russia. These revolutions dismantled Tsarist autocracy and eventual creation of the Russian SFSR. A Provisional Government replaced an old regime and the emperor abdicated the office by force.
This happened during the initial revolution that took place in February 1917. The Gregorian calendar marks the time as March although the Julian calendar was the one being used in Russia. The second revolution occurred in October. During this revolution, Provisional Government was replaced by the Bolshevik or communist government.
February revolution or the March 1917 revolutions was mainly focused on the Petrograd which is now called Saint Petersburg. Members forming the imperial parliament also known as Duma took control of Russia during the chaos and they formed a Provisional Government of Russia. The last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II was abdicated when the army felt that it did not have the power or means for suppressing this revolution.
The workers’ councils also called the Soviets led by the radical factions of the socialists permitted the rule of a Provisional Government initially. However, they insisted that prerogative should influence militias and government control. February revolution occurred under heavy setbacks of the military during World War I between 1914 and 1918. This left the Russian army vastly in mutiny.
A duration of dual power continued in Russia when the Provisional Government had the state power. The Soviets national networks under the leadership of socialists had the lower classes as well as the political left allegiance. Frequent mutinies, many strikes and protest took place during this period. Socialists’ factions and the Bolsheviks campaigned against the conflict when Provisional Government opted to continue the fighting with Germany. The Bolsheviks eventually turned militias of the workers under their full control forming the Red Guards. The Red Guards are what later became the Red Army which was used it to exert significant control.
The October revolution which is marked as having taken place in November by the Gregorian calendar was led by Bolshevik party under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin as well as the workers’ soviets. October revolution led to the overthrow of the Provisional Government in the Petrograd. After overthrowing the Provisional Government, Bolsheviks made themselves leaders of different ministries while taking control of countryside and establishing Cheka for quashing dissent.
Later, civil war started between the white and the red factions. Red faction was for the Bolshevik while the white faction comprised of the anti-Bolshevik. The war continued for many years with Bolsheviks winning severally. Nevertheless, Russian revolution led to the creation of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.
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