Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur war was also called Ramadan war or the October war. Some people call it the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. It is a war that was fought by Arab states coalition led by Syria and Egypt against the Israelites from 6th to 25th October 1973.
The Yom Kippur war started when the coalition of the Arab states launched a surprise attack jointly on the positions of Israeli-occupied territories during Yom Kippur which is a holiest day for the Judaists. The attack was made during the Holy Ramadan for the Muslim. Syrian and Egyptian forces crossed the ceasefire lines entering Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula respectively. Israel had captured these territories in a six day war of 1967.
Both the Soviet Union and the United States initiated massive efforts to resupply respective allies during this war. Eventually, this led to almost a confrontation between these nuclear superpowers. The Yom Kippur war started with a successful, massive crossing of Suez Canal by the Egyptian. Egyptian forces advanced unopposed to Sinai Peninsula after crossing Cease-fire lines. Three days later, Israel mobilized its forces and eventually managed to stop the offensive by the Egyptian. This resulted in a stalemate.
In the Golan Heights, Syrians coordinated attack so that it could coincide with the offensive of the Egyptian. Initially, Syrians made a threat in their attacks in the territory held by Israel. However, Israel forces managed to push them back in a period of three days. This resulted in a pre-war ceasefire lines being re-established.
Afterwards, Israel launched a counter-offensive that took four days into Syria. Israeli artillery started shelling Damascus outskirts within a period of one week. Anwar Sadat, the Egyptian president started worrying about integrity of major ally. However, he was convinced that capturing strategic passed situated deeper in Sinai could give him a stronger position for negotiations.
Therefore, he ordered an offensive by the Egyptians but their attack was repulsed quickly. A counterattack followed at a seam between the two armies of the Egyptians where the Israelis crossed Suez Canal entering Egypt from where they began advancing westward and southwards towards Cairo. This led to a heavy fighting for a week resulting in heavy casualties for both the Egyptians and the Israelis.
A ceasefire was brokered by the United Nations on 22nd October but each side blamed the other. As of 24th October, Israel had a considerable improvement in its positions and it completed its encirclement of the Third Army of Egypt and Suez city. This caused tension between the Soviet Union and the United States. Consequently, another ceasefire was cooperatively imposed on 25th October ending the war.
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