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Discuss The Roles Of Language And Reason In History Feb 02 2011

Discuss the roles of language and reason in history

Language is an important element for communication. The absence of effective language presents the society with a communication barrier that impedes the passage of important information about issues and situations in life. Language is important in educational instruction in schools, and it underlies the student’s conception of information from the instructor. The importance of language is evident in its ability to manipulate the conception and interpretation of history by the student form the instructor. Language and the level of its development in the individual determine interpretation and conception in the individual. Proper reasoning in history hinges on language development and expertise in an individual. Majority of individuals are unable to articulate their ideas for lack of appropriate vocabulary and terminologies to express them accurately. The translation and interpretation of history and historical events employs language to a great extent. This is especially significant given the value of propaganda and multiple points of view in conflicts and other global events. Language based on a particular point of view foster interpretations and conceptions in the listener based on the communicator’s thoughts and attitudes (Chambers 249). Communication based on the use of impartial language promotes a balanced perception of the subject events, and an unbiased evaluation of the events by the individuals subject to such communication.

The objective of making the truth known is a major component of language communication in history. Language communication is major determinant of the promotion of individuals’ personal analysis, conception, and interpretation of historical events. Though an individual’s own paradigm, cultural patterns, and attitude and thought patterns are vital in the interpretation of historical events, language use in the communication of historical events is vital in events’ analyses. One of the conditions for concept acceptability in science is that it must be reproducible and replicable. This is a major limitation for the acquisition of knowledge in relation to historical events, as some of the events are non-reproducible. Falsification, another concept in science, features less significance in history as events simply either happened or did not. Literature represents an exemplary trend in language use for the promotion of knowledge.
Art is important in the communication of historical information. Respect to facts and the attendant emotions are also important in such communication. The perspective of an individual determines to a great extent the knowledge of truth in historical events. Knowledge and proper analyses of historical events are subject to four important channels that feature close relations. These are emotion, perception, reason, and language. Uses of symbolism and language are important aspects of communication to enable interpretation and competent perception (Chambers 250). History is important in providing information to individuals about past events, personalities, and their significance. Language is the only effective method of transferring such information to individuals. This is especially significant given that personal experience is the only other practical way of undergoing the emotions, feelings, and significance of such events in a society. Language applies as a medium of the transfer of information and knowledge about past events. Contact with reliable sources of information is important to promote competent knowledge in individuals in the society.
Language is natural to humanity, due to the need for expression, interaction, and learning. History is a unique subject since in most cases, the conveyor of knowledge has no benefit of first hand experience. Reasoning in history is dependent on language, which facilitates culture. Culture influences behavior and the thought patterns of individuals in a society. Knowledge of history is important in a society as it facilitates decisions that determine the best courses for the future (Heering and Osewold 324). Since humans are liable to bias based on mind and cultural concepts, half-truths are common in historical information, necessitating wide research and information to promote balance and non-bias in the possession of historical knowledge.
 Language is a powerful tool in influencing human thought. The writing of history involves human thought and analysis of events. Reasoning is thus important in historic knowledge. Reasoning in the production of history is subject to influence from personal perceptions and interpretations. Perceptions of the historical events shape the individual’s thought patterns, promoting the adoption of certain styles and attitudes in the writing of history. These perceptions determine the language of communication and writing in such historical communications, thus influencing the perceptions of individuals subject to such writing. Without language, however, there would be no effective method of transferring knowledge about historical events to subsequent generations. Arguments in history apply on a direct basis. This means that language plays a vital role in the transfer of knowledge and information on past events in a society. Language facilitates a sense of belonging and direction to history (Heering and Osewold 324). History involves the communication of emotions, attitudes, and behaviours in the past societies to present and future ones. Language presents an effective method and channel for this communication.

Work cited
Robert, Chambers. Encyclopedia of English Literature. New York, Gould and Lincoln, 1854.
Peter Heering and Daniel Osewold. Constructing Scientific understanding through Contextual Teaching. New York, Frank & Timme,2007.
Center For Academic Research Corporations. All Rights Reserved.
Justice System Jul 06 2010
Justice System
Section I
The argument that this amendment fails to provide sufficient protection for citizens gains credence from the fact that there exist various loopholes that provide ways of evading its jurisdiction. This amendment states: “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or things to be seized.” (Worrall 5) 
Various loopholes are notable in the amendment, promoting the ability of individuals and institutions to evade jurisdiction. The conjunction “and,’ the 25th word in the amendment above, is open to various interpretations that limit the effectiveness of the amendment. In the case between the U.S. State and Rabinowitz (339 U.S. 56 [1950]), the clause before the conjunction in effect does not make it clear what is liable to interpretation as reasonable. The clause leaves this determination open for the parties concerned to interpret for themselves. The amendment further fails to protect open fields sufficiently through its provisions (Worrall 2010; Blackburn et al. 1995). The amendment’s provisions also fail to address searches that private security details conduct. The term “effects” in the amendment is a generalization, and there is no definition preventing the inclusion of criminal weapons and the results of criminal activity from its provisions (Worrall 69). Generally, the amendment fails to address many crucial issues of importance in security, promoting the possibility of allowing personal and institutional interests to determine the jurisdiction and application of its provisions.
Section II
The commission of crime by the police is a grave matter. The law strives to ensure that all police officers’ actions apply within the law. Possibilities however exist of the lack of detection of police officers’ actions that contravene the law (Worrall 43). In cases where police officers collect crucial evidence in an unlawful way, such as through trespass, the resultant evidence is usually inadmissible in a court of law (Dervort and Vandervolt 1999). The implication of this provision is that genuine criminals may experience non-conviction and freedom based on the inadmissibility of evidence due to small police errors. Given that the police are human and are liable to normal human errors, with the exceptions of the “good faith and impeachment” exceptions, small, unintended police errors may nullify the prosecutions of genuine criminal activity (Worrall p. 44). In some cases, these provisions could nullify reasonably clear and valid prosecutions of crime in the society. This was evident in the “United States v. Leon (468 U.S. 897) and Dunaway v. New York (442 U.S. 200 [1979])” cases (Worrall 47). Another example of this is the case in which police officers in Cleveland entered the home of Dolly Mapp without a legal warrant (Hartman 2004).
The fourth amendment bears various loopholes that make it to provide less than effective protection for citizens in the U.S. Police mistakes expose the processes of prosecution to possibilities for invalidation based on “non-lawfulness.” Human mistakes among police officers present criminals with opportunities for freedom and non-conviction due to evidence inadmissibility based on collection and procedure breaches. This is a major avenue for freedom among genuine criminals without punishment for crimes committed.   

Works Cited
Blackburn, Robert, and Gilbert, Dean. Photographic enforcement of traffic laws. National Cooperative Highway Research Program, New York, 1995
Hartman, Gill, Mersky, Raymond, and Tate, Cate. Landmark Supreme Court cases: the most influential decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York, InfoBase Publishing, 2004
Van Dervort, Robert, and Vandervort, Tim. American law and the legal system: equal justice under the law. New York, Cengage Learning, 1999
Worrall, Jenson. Criminal procedure: From first contact to appeal (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2010
Center For Academic Research Corporations. All Rights Reserved.
Management and Organization Theory Jun 13 2011
Published by Admin under Book/movie review, Article review
Management and Organization Theory
            The book “Images of Organization” published in 1986 has its most recent edition, being the second edition. The book has narrowed its interest on the world’s important changes that have taken place over the past years: Its messages are very significant for management teams for organizational management. Moreover, the book is usable as a tool among business graduates. Among the most significant works in the book is that of Gareth Morgan: He has offered many solutions in relation to the challenges that individuals managers and other leaders are experiencing at the market place. His works endeavors at enhancing greater understanding of organization, a goal he realizes through his emphasis of perception of organizations through metaphors and multiple images.
            “Images of Organization” is divided into some three distinct sections: The first section provides an introduction as well as an overview of the entire book, with emphases on the desired effectiveness of the book to respond to the contemporary issues in the global economy. The second section has its interests directed towards analyzing various images of organizations. This section is divided into eight segments: (1) Mechanization takes command, (2) Nature intervenes, (3) Learning and self-organization, (4) Creating social reality, (5) Interests, power and conflict, (6) Exploring Plato’s cave, (7) Unfolding change logics, and (8) The ugly face. The second section has also introduced as well as explored the various metaphors used in the book. The third and the final section has focused on the implications of practice. Some of the major issues addressed in the section include Post script, Reading and Shaping Organizational Life and Metaphor Challenge. Further the section has an exploration of metaphor usage within the political arena.
            The major objective of this book review is to analyze each chapter through highlighting the fundamental perspectives within the chapters and providing a brief summary of the central points, which are essential in development of theory of management and organization. The chapter analysis will be followed by an scrutiny of the underlying themes, making a persuasive conclusion in relation to organizational management and organizational policies.
Book Review
Images of Organization
Chapter One
            The central focus of this chapter is the exploration of the metaphor of organizations as machines. The metaphor endeavors at understanding and giving insight over how organizations function. The metaphor is more applicable for organizations that are mechanized and routinized: In both cases, the machines should be reliable. Owing to the fact that for machines to perform effectively there is a need of frequent servicing, there is a need of providing constant examination of the systems. Morgan has observed that the metaphor of the machines has played a significant role in establishment of bureaucratic organizations (21). The approach also facilitates towards development of classical management theory. The theory has captured management as encompassing various processes, which include planning, control, organization, command and coordination. Morgan has argued that in turn, such is instrumental in the endeavor to establish the basis for numerous techniques within the contemporary management approaches such as planning, programming, budgeting systems, and other methods, which emphasizes on rational planning and control (Morgan 18).
Chapter Two
            The book has explored the nature of organizations through perception of organizations as machines. The author has been successful in the usage of the machines imagery in development of bureaucratic organizations. He has argued that effectiveness in management of organizations is experienced once the management team is able to perceive organizations as machines with diversified interlocking parts, playing defined roles over the effective functionality of the entire system. Gereth has pointed out that the greatest challenge experienced by managements emanate from inclination towards what he calls “mechanical thinking” (p. 34). The endeavor of the author is to open greater variation of the mind set in dealing with the management of the contemporary organizations: Such advocates for paradigm shift within the organization’s management.
Chapter Three
            The focus of the author in this chapter is perception of organizations as organisms. The organizations endeavor at comprehending and understanding the needs of the immediate environment as well as management of environmental relations. The metaphor is employed in perception of organizations as species, with a similar form of bureaucratic arrangements. The author has reasoned that organizations are like species; they perform differently within diversified environments (Morgan 33). Thus, he argued that there is a need to have an understanding of how specific organizations came into being and others issues affecting them such as their growth, their development, their declination and possible causes of such organizations’ deaths. Within a broader ecology, there exist diversified relationships of species and patterns of evolution: Such are essential in providing the management with insight about the needs of the organization. When the management views the organization as a living organism, there is an enhanced possibility of understanding the organization more comprehensibly. The argument of Morgan is that organizational theorists have been enabled to identify and study various needs of organizations as living organisms with their main focus being on: Organizations as free ‘open system’, different organizations’ species, adaptation process of organizations to environments, the factors that influence organizational development and health organizational life cycles, and relationship between species and ecology (34).
Chapter Four
            This chapter has explored organizations in the imagery of the brains. The broader understanding of the brain is a processing system for brains (Morgan 72). According to the various studies that have endeavored to explore the brain, it is perceived as a holographic and specialized system. This is based on the fact that the brain does not have a central control point; moreover, brain seems to process as well as store diversified information at the same time (75). Thus, organizations should scan as well as effectively predict environmental changes. Moreover, organizations should pose challenges for operating norms and assumptions, while encouraging emergent organization.
            Comparison of organizations with holographic systems, an organization is challenged to position and shape itself in such a way that it will effective in facilitating the learning process. The entire qualities of organizations are enfolded in every of its parts, thus ensuring the capability of the system in continuous regeneration and self-organization. The chapter directs the efforts towards designing organizations as brains as well as examining their performance. The metaphor of the brains draws the attention from the organizational need to process information and learn while providing a referencing framework terms for understanding and assessment of the contemporary organizations. The brain metaphor also enhances the essential principles for creating organizational learning.
Chapter Five
            This chapter has directed its focus on exploration of cultures of organizations. The focus of organizations cultures has received greater attention, especially over the last few years because of its significance in management and designing of organizations. The objective is realized through emphasizing on organizational norms, beliefs, values, rituals among other shared patterns of meanings vital to organizational life guidance.
Chapter Six
             This chapter has analyzed the political metaphor, focusing on examination of diversified conflicts, power plays and interests that are significant in shaping organizational activities. Any organization shares one feature with political systems: It endeavors at eliminating all possible weaknesses, which could result to its downfall. In this chapter, organizations are perceived as political systems: There is a need of fostering unity within organizations and overcoming conflicts that trigger immense weakness over the systems of an organization. The role of power of an organization is imperative, thus it should be put into consideration just like within political systems, where power generates an ideal functionality unity (Morgan 392). Within organizations, interests exist and they have a special role, thus they should not be overlooked while making decisions: They are relatively essential in organization and management of the overall goals, aims and objectives of an organization.
Chapter Seven
The chapter provides an overview of organizations, perceiving them as psychic prisons. Morgan ahs argued that this metaphor is widely employed in liberating people from diversified traps that they could find themselves in. Such traps are as a result of diversified ways through which individuals think as well as unleash their power and creativity (208). Morgan has further observed that some organizations have experienced repressing circumstances, whereby they are sexually repressed, thus the metaphor calls for collective responsibility of the organizations to rise in opposition of discriminations, which are propelled by gender and sexuality issues (Morgan 212).
                Morgan has observed that some organizations have foundations which are similar to patriarchal families where their power is vested on an individual. According to Morgan, an organization can only function effectively if there is a centre of power from where decisions are made; however, such should not be at the expense of the rights of the employees and other significant stakeholders. Decision making efficiency and collective actions of almost all the stakeholders could play a very significant role in dealing with all forms of anxiety which could be experienced in an organization. Organizational anxieties could be resultant from ventures into novel operations or from uncertainties within the marketplace (Morgan 218-221).
            There is a need for organizations to have effective measures well established in the endeavor to deal with any form of frustrations, which could lead to closure of the organization’s infant corporations within the market: The psychic metaphors could play a significant role in dealing with such frustrations (Morgan 219).
Chapter Eight
This chapter has explored organizations in relation to transformation and flux. The chapter, Morgan has observed that organizations are under constant changes in the endeavor to fit within the market demands, thus there are no static objects within the economic sector (241). Moreover, the author has mentioned that there is no static equilibrium market; rather, dynamism which changes over time and with the market changes characterizes the market (243). Organizations establish such systems, thus they manage to flow freely and continue with their day-to-day activities facilitated by their self-organization ability that ought always to be championed by diversified operational functions, thus meeting the requirements of the market place (Morgan 245).
            Transformation of business processes and management of organizations requires possession of systematic wisdom. Morgan has observed that such goals could be achieved via systematic planning and having a systematic wisdom pool at the disposal of an organization (249). Every move towards transformation should be geared towards making organization’s products more attractive, thus attracting more clients. The management of any organization has a responsibility of ensuring that the organization takes the appropriate measures towards facilitating the overall improved performance (250). Morgan has observed that transformation and flux could come with chaos in situations where they are not managed well: Thus, there is a need for effective management if a firm is expected to survive such chaotic circumstances that are very common and inevitable (251). Complexity might result from efforts of transformation, with such creating dire need for effective measures geared towards countering the complexities and the challenges, which could be triggered by changes of technology as well as other lines of operation (Morgan 253). Changes which result from transformation and flux could cause butterfly effects within organizations, paradox, emergent novel innovation properties and dialectics.
Chapter Nine
            In this chapter, the author has examined the organization’s ugly face, referring to it as the domination instrument (291). The author has first analyzed an organization’s domination role in diversified sectors of its operations. The domination is not limited to the employees alone, but also to the clients who enjoy the organization’s output (Morgan 293). Organizations have been perceived as significant contributors to societal classes and agents of control within diversified operational spheres. Larger organizations that submit huge taxes to governments have been cited as being relatively influential in shaping and making different economic policies. Morgan (305) has argued that organizations are to blame for most misfortunes of the employees such as occupational diseases, work hazards and industrial accidents. Moreover, several mental and social stresses emerge from many organizations besides work holism, most of which pose immense threat to rights of humans (310). Within some cases, there is high politicization of organizations, thus making them highly radicalized, with such leading to untold domination as well as abuse of the human rights. Morgan has posited that multinational corporations have been in the forefront as far as exploitation is concerned, thus they are greatest threat to economies. Such gigantic multinational corporations are world powers, having significant impact upon world’s economy and politics (315).
            Therefore, the works of Morgan Gareth could be perceived as metaphorical thinking treatise that makes a significant contribution to management theory and practice. The various perspectives employed in the book from the second chapter to the ninth chapter clearly illustrate the wide range of ideas and perspectives in organization and management theory. The author has used eight different metaphors in demonstration of diversified organizational perspectives, with each section and chapter discussing the various strengths, limitations and implications for practice. Nevertheless, the metaphors are not exhaustive in any way: There could be other possible symbolic images that could be used in management to demonstrate some clear viewpoint of management and organizations. The organizational images vary from most of other management books: This approach employed by the author has more clear and precise viewpoints which comprehension easier. Among the approaches employed by scholars and organizations in shaping and understanding organizational life is through the use of metaphors, thus giving the works of Morgan more credit.
            In the endeavor to develop these themes, chapter ten to chapter twelve have shown the ways through which organizations integrate diversified insights as derived from diversified metaphors of management perceptions. Chapter ten and eleven have focused on the essence of metaphors in bringing about improvement of organizations’ ability of understanding, seeing as well as interpreting key life aspects of an organization. On the other hand, chapter twelve is a sketch about the implications for world management turbulent in a broader perspective. Chapter four to eight have been the most successful in exploration of the major contributions chaos and complexity theory. Such is an effort to make more profound appreciation on the nature of changes in organizations, which could take in facilitating comprehensive organization and management.
            The central messages of the book “Images of Organization” lie within the first chapter, which is the introduction and Chapter twelve, which is the Postscript. The two chapters have clearly portrayed the major objectives that the author endeavors to communicate: The manner in which diversified metaphors facilitated development of different management and organization theories, the way understanding of specified processes could help in mastering limitations and strengths of various points of view, and the manner in which learners could integrate knowledge that is contained in the book in facilitating effective management and leadership.  
            The book, “Images of Organization” was written by Morgan Gareth. The book has offered a number of metaphors, which provides diversified perspectives in relation to organization and management challenge of change. The contemporary world is characterized a time when adaptive problem solving is a central stage and also there is a limitation over the vital solutions employable in dealing with the problems. Every organizational level requires some stimulation of the potential ideas and solutions: Such creates the need of innovation and creativity.
            Such an understanding has led Morgan to conduct a study over various issues of management and organization, and finally identified a number of solutions, which includes providing metaphors that help in explain issues of organizations, thus enhancing their understanding and consequently providing amicable solutions to the challenges.
            The book has clearly showed that managers and leaders of organizations have the required ability to combat disturbing and complex situations through developing novel ways of thinking. The author has a strong believe that images and metaphors that promote possibilities of specific lens in viewership of organizations: An individual could be better positioned to comprehend the organization theories. Metaphors play a significant role in facilitating recognition of certain features, thus giving better understanding of the issues in question.
Nevertheless, metaphors have a limitation in scope because they create partial insights: Such insights could be misleading if the subjects heavily rely on them. Such takes place in situations where one does not employ the metaphors with extra caution. Moreover, for one to make use of a metaphor or even to interpret a certain metaphor, the individual needs to have background information about the items of the metaphor or the metaphor itself. Probabilities of failed communication are very high if the targeted populations do not have the slightest clue about the items used. Though the author was successful in usage of the metaphors in communicating the desired themes, he did not bother to have further explanations for the ignorant as far as symbols used were concerned.

Work Cited
Morgan, Gareth. Images of Organizations. 2nd ed. London, UK: Sage Publications, 2006.
Center For Academic Research Corporations. All Rights Reserved.
Human Resources Information Systems Aug 21 2011
Published by Admin under Case study, Business plan
Human Resources Information Systems
            E-HR: This is a software which encompasses the utilization of t he internet in activities such as data entry, data tracking, and other data information activities such as preparing payrolls, management in organizations and accounting, which are required by the human resources. With an effective E-HR, one can easily access all information about employees within an organization. Thus, for an organization to be successful in the human resources management there is a need to have an effective E-HR in place.
            This discussion has observed that most organizations have introduced and are making use of E-HR process. For instant, the IBM has been among the companies that have adopted the process in controlling the human resource department of the company. Among the embraced part of the E-HR process is the WebSphere software, which was created by the IBM to facilitate communication with the external world. Another example of an organization that has reaped from the E-HR process is Pakistan’s State Bank. The bank has been able to reduce levels of the staff, particularly individuals who deal with the administrative issues. Moreover, the E-HR process has enabled the bank to enhance organizational roles’ competition.
             There are a number of benefits that an organization could draw from utilization of the E-HR process. For example, a company could enhance both of its internal and external communication among the employees and with its clients respectively. Companies using the E-HR program have been more effective in harmonization of the programs of compensation, thus easing the management process.
             However, the E-HR process has its limitations: The process minimizes the chances of recognition of the old and the more experienced employees in an organization. Moreover, the E-recruitment facilitated by the E-HR does not favor potential employees who are not computer literate. The department of human resources could also experience a massive challenge introducing the E-HR process and integrating it into the organization’s system. The employees within an organization must be equipped with the necessary qualifications in relation to their positions and they must also have the desired internet use skills.
This literature review purposes at critically analyzing how diversified organizations have embraced the utilization of the E-HR in running their human resources activities. The review shall also highlight some of the example organizations that have used the E-HR process in their activities. Moreover, the paper will endeavor to critically discuss various benefits and limitations, which characterize the E-HR, process as well as how the limitations ought to be addressed for an organization’s effective outcome.
The literature review has among the other objectives to solve the paperwork problems within the department of human resources. Over the years, human resources department in various organizations have found it relatively challenging and have been using too much time in dealing with paper work. Moreover, paperwork has made organizations incur numerous losses because of the inaccuracies that come along with the tedious and unreliable systems. For example, an organization could loose some very vital data regarding employees working with the organization, thus jeopardizing the company’s progress in one way or the other. However, in support of the E-HR, it has been observed that electronic systems have played significant roles in enhancing the management of the employees and other resources relating to the organization’s staff (Pynes 2008, p. 300).
We are living in a world where everything is turning technological: Almost all sectors ranging from farming, manufacturing, transportation, communication and various service industries, technology has been embraced as an appealing approach towards improving productivity and enhancing efficiency. Numerous improvements have been experienced in technology, thus facilitating better presentation of works and making business activities to realize more profit. Introduction of high speed internet in various sectors such as organizations has facilitated greater access to records and reports and made functionality easier. Numerous departments of organizations are using the E-HR devices in checking the staff (Pynes 2008, p. 300).
This literature review has explored diversified literatures that have directed their studies towards how the E-HR process has been employed in human resources departments and how they have been successful in the departments’ endeavors. This study will also endeavor at evaluating such systems, especially in relation to improvement of efficiency and effectiveness in organizations. The various cases that have been selected as examples of the E-HR process shall be used as part of this literature review. Basically, the study will explore the way in which the E-HR is employed in altering the traditional human resources operational approaches within organization.
The central purpose of this review is to conduct a critical analysis of the approaches employed by various organizations in employment of the E-HR within their human resources departments. This review shall conduct thorough critical analysis of the various case studies which have been tabled to determine whether the process is effective in realizing its objectives. Moreover, the review endeavors at critically discussing some benefits as well as limitations, which characterize the E-HR process and how the limitations ought to be addressed in the endeavor to realize the desired objectives for both the employers and the employees, providing them with greater efficiency than the traditional human resource methods (Hopkins & Markham 2003, p. 20).
E-human resources: The vowel “e” stands for electronic with such examples including email and ecards. This process is a more effective and faster means of indicating the manner in which electronic systems could assist the human resources departments in organizations making them more efficient (Deminos n.d, par. 2).
E-HR adoption in Organizations
            The introduction of technology over the various sectors and organizations in their day to day operations has led to its adoption in the human resources departments of the organizations. Among the companies that have embraced that technology in their human resources departments is the IBM. IBM developed a certain program, the Web-sphere Portal Software in the endeavor to be used in organizations (Spencer 2004, p. 50). Through such programs, organization’s stakeholders are able to communicate with the other departments in the organization. Some of the common benefits that a company derives from using such programs include enhancement of employees’ productivity, facilitate development of dynamic relationships among employees and also facilitates to a major reduction of the organization’s operational cost (Spencer 2004, p. 55).
            For example, the E-HR portal, commonly employed by organizations allows the staff to obtain critical information such as information on training, travel and expense systems which are required by the organization among many other tools. Spencer (2004, p. 78) ahs observed that such is perceived as a productive strategy since the approach is providing the human resources department with adequate time as well as considerations towards some other relatively significant matters other than from such notifications. Organizations and other stakeholders have perceived E-HR to be effective, dynamic and efficient device, assisting huge numbers of businesses, with little consideration of the size or even the nature of such accounts. The systems enable such businesses to enjoy prices that are lower via the increment of company’s efficiency with automated process implementation to manage various human resources operations (IBM 2006, p. 30).
Critical Analysis
E-HR Benefits
Prior to establishment of the E-HR, organizations are interested at responding to the question of what are the benefits that they hope to derive from employing such a system in their organizations. The major aim of most organizations as they employ the e-performance management process is to monitor the movement of the employees, thus ensuring that the conduct of the employees is geared towards helping the organization realize its objectives (Stone, et al., 2006, n.p).  According to Gueutal and Stone (2005), the use of the internet in organizations for the purposes of enhancing performance provides organizations with competitive advantage, through enhancement of organization’s productivity. However, Stone and his co-authors advise that it is important for organizations to direct their concentration on ensuring that the HR within their organizations is satisfied. For example, according to the Halogen software, organizations are able to use e-appraisal solutions to enhance the arrangement between the objectives of the workers and corporate values as well as improving the status of the organization.
Another example that has showed the benefits and the effectiveness of the E-HR is the State Bank in Pakistan. The bank has been successful in lowering the staff level, especially the ones concerned with the administrative responsibilities(Zafar 2009, p.60). Concerning the employees of the company, the role of E-HR appears being influential in updating of the changes of the company. The process has also enhanced the roles of the organization competition, through the use of electronically completed discussion, hence assisting the contemporary career routes. Employees in the bank are provided with information over the internet about the novel ideas and approaches to diversified issues, thus the process enhances learning among the employees, an approach which greatly benefits the bank in running of its affairs. 
Company’s employees benefit from the E-HR process in that it appears influential in updating of the changes desired in the company. Moreover, the process has managed to enhance competition within organizations by use of electronically completed discussions which assist career development and thus improvement of organization’s productivity.
According to a research on Pakistan state Bank, the policies of the E-HR give understandable as well as sustainable objectives, which give specifications on the manner in which the objectives of an organization should be realized. However, one significant problem that has been identified with the process is the secrecy of information, which is provided within the web portal. Provision of guarantee of security to such information appears to trigger one serious factor that affects the trust level of the employees in relation to the utilization of such forms of services. Lack of self-assurance and hope about the intentions of such kinds of information could make employees become uncertain when they are tabling the desired information into an electronic file (Lepak & Snell, 1998, p.230). Moreover, in relation to the manner in which the employees of Pakistan State Bank dealt with the process, a need for proper orientation of the staff into the performance through the E-HR was observed (Zafar 2009, p. 23).
Besides using the E-HR in controlling the contemporary employees of an organization, Robins (2003) observed that the process could also play a very critical role in ensuring that the future of the company as well as the assets of the company attracted and made use of the policies of e-recruitment (p. 134). The e-recruitment policies are an electronic and a web-based device, which assist an organization in the roles that relate to the development of human resources. Wutke (2008) has observed that about a decade ago, about ninety percept of five-hundred world’s companies started using their commercial websites in enhancement of their recruitment processes (p. 60). More talented employees seem to be attracted to organizations because of the contemporary e-recruitment in advertisement for vacancies and even interviewing employees (Wutke 2008, p. 34). According to Schweyer (2010), e-recruitment is perceived as among the most appropriate strategies for organizations to make use of within areas of talent management, since it facilitates accessibility possibility to aiding the company (p. 40).
Equally, web-based routine management provides responses of job performance, sections, identification or departments, which need improvement as well as standard measures for the subsequent periods. Moreover, the utilization of performance management enables organizations and companies to make use of the report, which originate from the systems, aiming at fulfilling, ensuring that the correct decisions are made in relation to managers, supervisors and employees in relation to raises, resources allocation and distribution, and promotions.
In the meantime, managers, supervisors and employees follow the rating trends. Moreover, responses on information over the reports are given to the employees in written or oral means. Payne et al, (2009) have argued that such a process has facilitated an increase in the analysis general standards. Halogen software (2010) posits that performance management plays a significant role in Lee Enterprises since the employees and the supervisors are able to table a discussion of the individualistic and the company’s goals as well as plan in the endeavor to realize similar objective. Such assists the enterprise in enhancing the values of the organization, which helps it to realize corporate objective (n.p).
The organization’s capacity to enhance communication between and among the employees within the organization is among the major contribution, which the E-HR does to the human resource department. The competition option program could be harmonized within a company with the E-HR process. According to Deminos (n.d, par. 2), employees could for example manage to evaluate their instructors by the use of surveys, which could be accomplished via the use of electronic portals that are checked by human resources department.
Issues of morality as well as the use of such information are very sensitive in the use of the E-HR within the human resources department, depending on the ability of the employers to provide self-service to workers in the institution (Kleynhans 2006, p. 134). Such is a clear portrayal that utilization of vibrant as well as effective technology could facilitate in making sure that every crucial information is obtained. According to the works of Olivia (2005, p. 111), supporting such an idea, the employees should be allowed to have greater control over the affair, which were being taken care of by expatriates within the field of human resources at the past.
Some scholars such as Walker (2001) perceive that it shall be relatively challenging, if not impossible for the E-HR process to achieve a total transformation over the activities of human resource department (p. 20). Walker has further argued that some of the vital factors in relation to E-HR process success include strategic positioning of such a device capacity, thus assisting the users in the endeavor to enhance their business or individual objectives. The capacity of business operations provides the implementation team of such a strategies with the necessary information. Good working conditions are also imperative as far as the performance of an organization is concerned: Appropriate working conditions greatly enhance the working conditions.
According to Taylor (2005), the use of E-HR process by firms could provide them with more improved approach to training the employees. According to a number of studies conducted in diversified companies and organizations, it has been observed that most of them are working towards improving the technological skills of their staff, as such would lead to more enhanced productivity and more up-to-date approach to diversified situations (p. 180). Most of the organizations were offering their employees with indoor trainings, geared towards making their staff more productive and fitting within the contemporary society. Among the teaching approaches that have realized greatest attention from organization’s staff is the internet-based learning. Whether with a teacher or without one, employees are encouraged to take the studies serious, and endeavor to implement that which they learn in making the organization they work for realize full benefits. When the employees already have the necessary skills and training on technology, it becomes relatively easy to use the E-HR processes and enhances organizational productivity.
Introducing the E-HR devices in an organization especially during trainings makes the training process become relatively flexible. During the processes of training, some factors that could help in educating employees could be brought on board, thus becoming significant E-HR tools for the making the process more flexible. According to Khosrowpour (2000), such trainings could assist organizations in reducing the training cost, which under normal circumstances and under the traditional training approaches could be quite expensive (p. 633). Nike also plays a very significant role in providing online forms of training to its employees within the sales sector, thus preparing them for product teaching and thus enhancing the company’s productivity as well as making them more knowledgeable about whatever products they distribute to the clients in the field. According to Strohmeir (2007), in every store where the company conducted online training to the staff, the sales of the store increased by about 3 to 6% (p. 23). One of the limitations of the online training as observed by Berman et al, (2009) is that it does not provide the instructor with an immediate response of the progress as it is in the traditional training methods (p. 22).
E-HR Limitations
The use of the E-HR in organizations encompasses the monitoring of the staff behaviors: Such is not a welcome idea, especially among the employees. This is because it will interpret to limitation of the employees’ freedom, which could also have a negative impact on productivity of the company. When employees are not being monitored, there is a tendency to explore novel ideas or styles in the endeavor to improve personal productivity. Such attempts sometimes results to novel and better techniques, which could benefit the productivity of individuals, and consequently the productivity of the company (Stone, 2006, n.p). Moreover, the employees could react negatively to the constant monitoring and to the lowered independence which might have pronounced implications on the organization.
It is also very obvious that the use of the technology does not always provide individuals in the organization with an opportunity to articulate their concerns and feelings in relation to performance ratings, rather such individuals could show some lowered levels of trust towards the web-based systems. Moreover, individuals could fail to understand performance response, which are provided via the electronic means, whenever there is lack of a face-to-face response between the administration (managers and supervisors) and the employees.
Even as the be benefits of using e-recruitment have been tabled as an opportunity that any organization should rush to grub, it should also be apparent to all the stakeholders involved that some disadvantages come along with the advantages. According to Taylor (2005), one of the limitations which relate to the usage of the e-recruitment is that the older and more experienced persons interested with such a position that is vacant are left out in favor of the younger generation with internet experience: those who have more exposure to internet and computer but less experience in the job positions. Therefore, an organization might have an entire novel team with very little experience over what is expected of them as far as the job positions are concerned, which could have pronounced damaging effects on the organization’s productivity (p. 180).
Though not as a big bother, it becomes relatively challenging to sort the various applications done. Taylor (2005) has observed that because of the ease of the application process, whenever a position is advertised, there is a temptation among most people, even those who are not qualified to apply for the job; after all, it will cost one nothing just to attach a CV and send it over to the address provided. Thus it becomes relatively challenging to go through all the sent mails and to determine who is qualified and who is not. Common method of application does not attract a huge population, thus the sorting is relatively easy (p. 180). Sometimes, some of the applicants might be apt for the task, thus the human resource managers have a very challenging time in sorting from the long list who are have what is desired for the job (Wilkinson 2005, p. 89).
One of the major limitations of using the web in controlling the staff is that confidentiality is not guaranteed. Different people, including the untrustworthy, could have an access to some vital details of their workmate, which could be used against them, thus jeopardizing the progress of a company. The E-HR system could be tampered with thus placing some vital information about the human resource department of a company at jeopardy. Interference with private information is a crime which could be limited by avoidance of the technological system. The affected employees could feel insecure and uncomfortable working with an organization once their personal informational is brought to the public (Marchington & Wilkinson, 2005, p. 89), which could risk the company loosing some much potentiated staff.
From the above literature review, it is obvious that the human resources department has experienced extensive change over the past few decades. The change emanated from the dire need of to trigger a change in the department because of the challenges that those in charge were experiencing. The E-HR was perceived as a better alternative in helping overcome the cumbersome and time consuming work that the human resources managers were experiencing. Irrespective of the various disadvantages that have been identified in the study, it is obvious that the advantages of the use of technology in the human resource department surpasses the limitations, thus it is advisable to embrace the E-HR technology in the endeavor to improve the activities of the organization.
The limitations of using the technology are very obvious including the exclusion of the older and more experienced staff and greater difficulty in selection of the qualified applicants, since most people who lack the relevant requirements thus making the sorting out relatively tasking. Lack of the necessary experience among those with internet experience could jeopardize the progress of the company.
The E-HR technology could enhance the manner in which tasks and operations within the human resource department are sorted. Such uplifts the human resources department’s standards, making them more reliable, and facilitating more organized employees which could lead to enhanced productivity. Technology could also provide greater assurance in the self-service field, from the workers who could provide services in a way, which saves energy, time, and money. Moreover, human resources department has managed to have a look for some consistent devices that could provide easiness in numerous duties, thus eliminating unnecessary issues.

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Khosrowpour, M 2000, Web-Enabled Technologies In Managing In Organization, A global perspective, Idea Group Publishing, London.
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Center For Academic Research Corporations. All Rights Reserved.
Business Strategy: Southwest Airlines Jul 05 2011
Published by Admin under Case study, Business plan

Business Strategy: Southwest Airlines


The United States’ Southwest Airlines is one of the major airlines in the country, providing high frequency, point-to-point, low fair and short haul services to the citizens and other people in the country. The history of the Airlines could be traced from 1971 when the Airlines started its operations. The first operations of the Southwest Airlines took place in the cities of Dallas, Houston and San Antonio where three Boeing 737 aircrafts operated. Today, Southwest Airlines operate about four hundred Boeing 737 aircrafts, serving 59 of the United States cities. Hill and Jones, 2009 have observed that this airline has the lowest cost of operations in the country. The low operations cost enable the company to provide its clients with low fare services (p. 105). This company is also outstanding as far as its services to its clients are concerned: The Company has a huge customer base because of the exceptional services that keep customers attracted to it: The returns of the company investments have been experiencing a steady growth every year.

Southwest airline business could be categorized into some three distinct sectors (1) Freights, (2) Passengers, and (3) others. The rest of the frights (others) accounts for about 1.6 percent. The company has continued to enjoy increased profits across the years of its operations. The Southwest Airlines has been ranked the best for its market share over and over: The Company has about 80 to 90% market share in its main pair routes in cities of operation. The overall competitive position of the company is quite high; the Company enjoys effective business and corporate strategies and strong market share as well as a very effective management team. During the company’s operations in United States’ South-eastern, it did not experience numerous or major challenges, rather the Company enjoyed huge profits as one of the low cost airlines that offered quality services to its clientele. However, this was not always the case in every area of its operations: Upon the entry to Florida, Southwest Airlines experienced pronounced challenges. The market in this region was highly competitive, making the company experience difficulties in the endeavor to continue realizing profits (Hill & Jones, 2009, p. 105). Over the recent past, competition in the market place has been quite stiff, thus triggering challenges over the strategic systems of the company and thus the management of the company has been active in the endeavor to structure systems that will enable the company to continue standing out as the best airlines in the region.

Inimitable Differences with Other Airlines

Southwest Airline is outstanding in a number of ways, most of which enables it to continue standing as the best airline company in United States. One of the major features that characterize this airline company is its business model: The Company flies only one type of aircraft, Boeing 737 across the United States high-density routs. This is different from the model employed by other airline companies in the country. The approach employed by the airlines is short haul approach, with the flights averaging to 55 minutes. Moreover, this company stood out because unlike many other airlines in the country, Southwest Airlines did not have seat assignment: The Company uses the less congested airports such as Manchester and Baltimore, N.H., and Reagan instead of the Washington and the Dulles airports. Hill and Jones (2009) have noted that the Company also operates in regions and cities such as Boston that are already congested by the competing airlines (p. 106).

The business model of the airlines has been relatively simple, for instant, the staff of the Company are paid per flight, the clients are not provided with meals during the short flight, the airline has no first class services thus no meant seat assignments and does not coordinate with the market players of United States airlines. Many of the Company’s clients enjoy the services that the company offers, with its casually dressed attendants, playful culture where customers are entertained with songs, jokes and music. Customers are also provided with some snacks even as the staff constantly reviews the safety instructions.

The Southwest Airlines novel business model offered unique customer services, which were characterized by some special features that were not common within the other flights. The company proved high-speed travels, which are flexible and very frequent departures, thus one can opt to use them instead of the road or the rail transports. Lauer (2010) has noted that the Company was among the first airline company to create a customized website, which made it relatively easy for it to interact with its customers, thus adding to Wi-Fi service and giving the customers greater options whenever they are using the airlines (27).

Management of Southwest Airlines

            Hoffer (2005) has noted that the Southwest Airlines portray successful leadership as well as management practices, which most other companies strife to copy. Southwest Airlines management has created a relatively flexible hierarchy, which allows personnel at different levels and positions to offer their inputs as well as participate in running of the company’s affairs: Such kind of leadership play a very significant role in motivating the staff, and thus keep them engaged. Herb Kelleher, the chief executive offer together with the other top management team of the company have managed to build trust between and among the managers and the rest of the staff: In Southwest Airlines, trust amongst the frontline staff is quite vital in the endeavor to enhance organizational effectiveness. The company’s leadership has played a significant role in encouraging openness and sharing of information among the employees and between the management and the employees, thus enhancing the quality of service that the company offers to its clientele. Such levels of openness have facilitated increased trust among the employees, consequently positively affecting the unity of the employees. The unity plays a significant role in enhancing their output, thus the company greatly reaps from this form of openness (Hoffer, 2005, p. 58).

The organizational structure of Southwest Airlines leaves the doors of decision making and advancing of solutions open to all the stakeholders. The company’s leadership encourages its team of staff to identify various challenges and problems that they face in the course of running the affairs of the company. The problem identification is not the end: The staffs are further encouraged to present possible solutions for those problems. Thus the staffs take the ownership of the company, so they seek the welfare of the company, and increase its productivity. Participation in advancing solutions to organization’s problems acts a motivator to the employees: They feel they are not just there to be used by the company; rather they have a role to play in enhancing the company’s productivity (Hoffer, 2005, p. 58-59).

            One of the features that characterize the leadership of the company is their charismatic nature. Led by the CEO, Mr. Kelleher, the company takes an active role of informing the employees how it cares for them. The leadership has established an environment of respect for all, irrespective of the level or position that one is in or even the experience that one has with the company: Whether a junior employee or a top management employee, whether a old employee with the company or a recent employee, all the staffs are treated with optimal respect. The respect is also extended to the customers. The respect approaches to motivating the staff make every employee in the company feel they are important. Actually, Southwest Airlines, since its establishment, has not established a lay-off policy, thus employees feel secure and they are sure about their future with the company.

            In the endeavor to demonstrate the caring spirit of the company towards its employees, the management of Southwest Airlines considers the needs as well as the challenges that the employees are going through, whether work related or not. For example, after the bombing of the New York City in September 11, 2001, which was followed by an increase in oil prices and pronounce economic crises, many companies in United States conducted massive lay offs of their employees. However, the employees of Southwest Airlines were not affected; they continued to work for the company even as the company incurred losses in the endeavor to maintain their staff.  Actually, a significant number of employees were left with no works after reduced bookings: The leadership of the company allowed the people to take other responsibilities in the company waiting for the restoration of the economy and subsequently the company’s normal activities. Lauer (2010) has observed that the company set apart some $179.8 million for dealing with the situation: The Company shared its profits with the employees, consequently motivating the employees to be loyal to their company (p. 22).

Southwest Airlines’ president, Mr. Barrett has received numerous credits from all the corners of the globe for his concern for the staff of the company. His type of leadership is that which encompasses respect to the subjects and servant leadership: He upholds a notion of a successful leader as an individual whose interest is to take care of the subjects following him. The finances of the company are managed through a conservative approach, whereby it is ensured that there is enough money for running the activities of the company and enough to take care of the needs of the employees, thus ensuring that the staffs of the company are always intact. Upon the employment of Kelleher as the CEO of Southwest Airlines, he established a number of policies in the company, some of which triggered a revolution, such as the overall change of the weight policies. 

The Winning strategy

Keeping it Simple

            Southwest Airlines has identified an approach known as keep-it-simple, which helps the company in easing the management and enhancing cost effectiveness. The company flies only one type of aircraft, Boeing 737. This enables the company to lower the maintenance and the training of staff cost. The Company also makes most of its jets, thus they are able to establish short hops as well as high frequency moves between the various cities in the country. Robert (1998) has noted that for many years, Southwest Airlines had avoided the congested cities that all the other airlines have been experienced stiff competition, but recently, they decided to venture into the regions in the endeavor to serve their business clients (p. 67). Southwest Airlines has increased market share and has become effective in attracting more clients through the acquisition approach. For example, the company’s acquisition of the Air Tran has played a significant role in improvement of its operations: The Company uses the Air Tran base in Atlanta to attract more customer base. The Southwest business has significantly been influenced by the blending of the Southwest Airlines and the Air Tran, thus making the company to increase its operations between Washington and Baltimore with an approximately 69% extra flights.

Strategy of Innovation

The United States Airline industry, being among the oldest in the world, is characterized by taut competition. Every as the industry experience liberalization, most companies have been forced to identify mechanisms that will help them continue fitting in the market place. Southwest operates primarily from less congested secondary airports in large catchment areas, low cost carriers have entered most of the markets where Southwest operates but southwest has continued to control these markets. To dictate most of the markets where the airline operates has taken effectual and well planned commerce strategies. Southwest embarks on modernization strategy that has permitted the airline to contend with major renowned airlines in United States that manage to radically restructure and thus check on their performance during insolvency. The restricting helps the company in maintenance of low cost, thus enabling the company to equally participate in the competitive market. Innovation in the company was introduced back in 1996, when the management of the company decided to venture into the northeastern congested airports. There are three phases to the innovation process of the company:

Continued Growth: Phase One

            The first phase that was geared towards facilitating continued growth commenced in 1998 and ended in 2000. During this period, Southwest Airlines developed successful strategies and improvement of the products to serve the interest of the clients. RothKopf has observed that during this initial phase, the company did not introduce novel products; rather the focus was on the operations of the company (p. 102). The conservative culture of the organization helped the company in achieving a long-term hedging of fuel supply: This marked an important feature within the history of the company.

 Stagnation: Phase Two

            The second phase of the company took place between 2001 and 2003, when United States airline industries experienced enormous crisis. During this phase, the company increased its innovation by introducing some cabin interiors, baggage tags and novel boarding passes. The operational innovations increased the security standards that were primarily significant after the September 11 attack (RothKopf, p. 102).  This second phase was characterized by innovations, which were inevitable because the company had avoided an introduction of any innovations, with focus on improving the operations’ efficiency despite the heightened complexities in airports.

 Growing With Low Financial Performance: Phase Three

            The third phase of Southwest Airlines’ innovation took place between 2004 and 2007, a period that was characterized by a drastic increase of the operational revenues. The growth in this period was demonstrated by low financial performance, with a fluctuation of about 6 percent. This time around, the innovation emphases were placed on the company’s services and products, in the endeavor to improve customer’s comfort while using the flights. The company also worked relatively hard in the endeavor to eradicate the limits of growth, which were naturally facing the efforts of the company to expand its business. The phase was characterized by some drastic changes even as the management embarked on very aggressive efforts of increasing the demand while retaining the business travelers. The period central focus was on the boarding procedures enhancing the communication features to facilitate greater and more effective communication with the clients (RothKopf, p. 102). Rothkopf has further observed that the management focused on crafting products, which would be more suitable to the needs of the customers. Such enabled the company to compete with other low cost airlines within the industry.

            Since the end of the third phase in 2007, the company’s strategies have remained the same: The major focus all through have been on innovation of the products to make sure  that the clients enjoy better services from the customer, even as it endeavors to maintain the customer base and attract more clients. The contemporary innovation is characterized by continuous refinement and sophistication of the process, even as the management and other employees of Southwest continue to identify various approaches that could be used to improve on their services to the customers and as the company allows them to contribute towards advancing solutions to any kind of problem that the company could be experiencing. RothKopf has observed that the Company is committed to activities which enhance innovation, which even encompasses imitating Southwest Airlines competitors. Innovations are driven by technological applications and creativity, both of which remain distinctive over the years (p. 103). The central objective of the innovations include simplification of the company’s operations and lowering the cost of providing services to the clients of the company, thus reducing the charges for flights and thus attracting more customers.

No Frills Strategy

            Within the United States airline industry, Southwest Airlines has the lowest cost, despite the fact that its balance sheet is the strongest. In every airline company, the greatest costs include the labor and the fuel cost. Robert (1998) has noted that the fuel cost in the company accounts for about 18 percent as the labor cost accounts for 40 percent of the total cost. With the keep-it-simple strategy, the company has been able to maintain low cost in the business operations, thus making it more affordable to many people, thus increasing the customer base (p. 78).

Policies, Procedures and Practices

Low Operational Cost

            The cost of operation in Southwest Airlines is maintained at very low levels through the selection of secondary airports, optimization of utilization of aircraft and through flying point-to-point. The cost of labor in the Southwest Airlines accounts for about 37 percent of the total cost. One of the critical elements within the airline industry for any company is the labor. If the labor force of a company is satisfied, they are bound to become loyal to the company, which consequently leads to enhanced productivity in the endeavor to make their company better than others. One of the motivating factors among the employees of this company is that they are paid above the average salary that most employees in other airline companies earn. About 80 percent of the company’s employees are also members of a union which plays a significant role in advocating for their rights. The company is also characterized by a long-standing cooperation culture, which cross unites the various labor groups (Freiberg & Freiberg, 1996, p. 78). A study conducted in 2001 observed that workforce productivity of this company was higher than that of American Airlines and United Airlines by about 45 percent.

Management of the Fuel Cost

Freiberg and Freiberg (1996) have observed that the cost of fuel for aircrafts is the second highest expenditure of airlines after the labor. As far as the cost of fuel is concerned, the Southwest Airlines hedge the fuel price thus preventing the swings of the operational expenses for the airlines in periods when the global prices of oil goes up. With close control of fuel, the company is able to have more precise approximation of the budget, thus easing the management process. As competitiveness increase and air travel become commoditized, it has become hard for airlines to pass fuel costs increases to customers by raising ticket prices, this has challenged the airlines to hedge fuel costs. Southwest has been effective in fuel hedging strategy that has helped in saving fuel expenses. The lowest fuel cost was experienced in 2005, when the company saved about $ 196 in the cost of fuel. According to Freiberg and Freiberg (1996), the company decided to add some distinctive winglets to the contemporary fleet: The winglets were primarily added to enhancement of performance through saving of fuel, reducing take-off noise, reduce cost of engine maintenance and extending of the aircrafts range.


With the Southwest, a customer does not need to visit the company’s offices to book a sit or even to ask questions about flight charges, the hours of departure and cities of destinations among other questions, rather, the company provides online services where a client can do all these activities online. Southwest Airlines developed a website, which facilitate online booking back in 2001. Since then, almost 50% of the bookings are done online, thus easing the work and making the service better for the clients. Freiberg and Freiberg (1996) have observed that immense revenues are drawn from online booking, as customers sacrifice about one dollar for online booking, which makes the company to benefit a lot from the e-ticketing. 

Point-to-Point Services

This system of maximizes flights and enhances operational efficiency, thus enabling the airline to remain cost-effective while providing on-time services, which are quite flexible and in favor of the customers. The Southwest Airlines offers short haul flights: The flights cover approximately 590 miles. Freiberg and Freiberg (1996, p. 84) argues that use of the secondary airports reduces the delays of travel and trims down the operational cost.

Flights Consistency

The use of a single aircraft strategy Boeing 737 is of great benefit to the company as earlier mentioned. According to Freiberg and Freiberg (1996), the company is able to reduce the maintenance cost as well as the training and scheduling challenges and cost. Training of pilots is a relatively challenging and expensive endeavor, but with the use of mono flight approach, the cost is lowered immensely and the duration of training is far much lessened, since they just need to know about one type of airplane, Boeing 737 (p. 88).

Policies of Hiring

            The policies of hiring employees in Southwest are quite unique. The most significant feature that the company looks for in a potential employee is the right attitude in the endeavor to advance the organizational culture of thriving. The process of selecting an employee by the human resource is quite rigorous: For one to qualify as a staff with the company, he has to prove the possession of the right attitude: Optimism as opposed to pessimism. The company also employs institutionalization of behavior approach in the endeavor to enhance the culture of the organization and reduce the cost of training new staff. Connerley and Rynes (1997) have observed that the institutionalization process is relatively expensive for an organization, since it encompasses intensive training to ensure that the employees have the right culture to bear the required fruits (p. 1567). Having the right people on board plays a very significant role in the endeavor to optimize appropriate customer care services. All the employees in the company are required to have the appropriate art of dealing with customers, whether they interact with customers directly or indirectly.

Successful Organizational Culture

            Among the outstanding features of Southwest Airlines is its unique culture that is engraved within its systems and among the employees of the company. The culture of the company has established great structures that help the company to respond to various challenges such as terrorists’ attacks. The culture of the company is embedded upon the values that the company upholds which encompasses aspects like care, relationship, and trust among the employees and between the management and the rest of the employees (Denison & Mishra, 1995, p. 207). The leadership also plays a very significant role in shaping the culture of the organization. The CEO, Kelleher has a strong influence upon the culture of Southwest Airlines. He highly values and teaches the rest of his staff about the values of competitiveness, spontaneity and epitomized energy (Denison & Mishra, 1995, p. 208).

            The culture of Southwest airlines is built on three themes: (1) fun, (2) efficiency and (3) love. The CEO treated employees with love and this has enabled the company to create a loving family of workers, the CEO knew almost all employees by their names and his personality charmed workers to which they reciprocated with dedication and loyalty. Southwest has culture of flexibility, the airline successfully negotiate flexible work descriptions in its union contracts, all job descriptions at Southwest end with statement; ‘whatever it takes to get the plane out’. Work relationships at Southwest Airlines are characterized by familiarity and friendliness. Since establishment, Southwest Airlines has promoted supportive, close-knit and enduring culture that is family like (Freiberg & Freiberg, 1996, p. 65).

            The management team has introduced diversified measures for fostering intimacy and informality among the employees, encouraging them to conduct businesses in manners, which affirm their dignity and worth. The company has demonstrated values, which are given to the employees. For example, at the headquarters, instead of having beautiful paints decorating the offices, there are wall-hangings of the Airlines’ staff offering service to the customers and interacting with each other. The president of the company himself, Mr. Barrett takes an initiative of sending every employee in the company who has a special occasion such as a birthday. 

Changing Leadership

            When the tenure of Kelleher will come to an end, the company is expected to experience a challenge as far as spiritual leadership is concerned. Such a situation will call for great human resource to ensure that issues like burying and harassment of colleagues will not take place. Turnover in management always comes with challenges since different leaders have different leadership styles. The new boss, Mrs. Parker has enormous experience about the company because she has worked with the company for many years, even to a capacity of a member of executive planning committee, thus had an opportunity to develop good relations with the various partners. She used to facilitate the properties team and technical services of the company. Parker has also served as the company’s chief negotiation officer, which led to development of strong relations with the staff unions. Nevertheless, Parker’s general counsel does not match that of her ex-boss, Kelleher. The greatest challenge that the company is expected to experience is change of the style of management, which could lead to a number of alterations, including on the operational procedures of the company, resources allocations as well as the relations with and among the employees (Connerley & Rynes, 1997, p. 1571). However, being a woman, there are a number of things that are not expected to change: For example, the care of the staff, because of the motherly element she possesses as a woman. The greatest challenge that she might experience is being too soft on the staff because of her feminine nature, thus leading the staff to challenge the leadership. 

Southwest Airlines Weaknesses

            This company is limited to only one country: The airplanes of Southwest are only available in United States alone. Such restraints prevent unregulated expansion of the company to other nations of interest. Though the company is able to minimize its expenses and avoid many other financial difficulties, the company sometimes finds it very challenging to satisfy the customer’s demand because of lack of enough finances. The company’s corporate culture is established on personality as opposed to documented or canonized organizational policies, thus a departure of one influential figure has probability of causing the downfall of the company. Basing the company’s corporate culture upon personality of a single charismatic leader is praiseworthy in various aspects, but also, it also has a whole basket of challenges that the leadership has to deal with incase of the charismatic leader’s departure.

            Operating only one type of airplane is becoming redundant and dull to many customers. While a single airplane type enables a pilot together with the staff to operate with minimal complications, it could be boring to them thus acting as a demoralizing factor. Moreover, some passenger could be in need of some airplane features, which are not readily available in Boeing 737, thus they might choose alternative airlines that offer services of their preference. Hoffer (2005) has noted that the company does not provide its clientele with baggage transfer services, thus some business customers would prefer using other airlines incase they have baggage requiring transfer from one region to another (p. 59).

Recommendations and Conclusion

As noted, the contemporary strategy of Southwest Airlines have been quite productive in realizing the objectives of the company, but there is still much that could be done in the endeavor to improve the productivity of the company. There is a need for the company to continue with innovation in the endeavor to improve its services to its clients. The last phase of innovation stopped at 2007, and there are numerous changes in the world of technology that could be used to improve the quality of services that the company offers to its customers. The use of just one type of airplane is passed by time: The Company need to seek better planes that will feet to the contemporary clients’ demands, to attract more clients who are loyal to other companies. It would also be important to continually upgrade their computer systems and software in order to ensure that they are functioning properly throughout. Innovation in information technology should entail new software programs and information systems to enable southwest Airlines to encourage external as well as internal communication, which is more effective. Effective utilization of information technology could play a very significant role in enhancing communication in the company and increasing the productivity of the company.


The Southwest Airlines is a successful business model in United States: Many companies have much to run from it. The low cost of operation and the innovative strategy have been very significant as far as enhancing the organizational effectiveness is concerned. The company has a strong culture which endeavors at making the employees feel appreciated as well as able to trust each other and work together for a common objective: Providing exceptional services to the customers of the company. The leadership of the company, which includes the president of the company and the CEO, has played a very significant role in enhancing organizational effectiveness and offering of excellent services, by ensuring that all the staff is quite passionate about what they do. The company also emphasizes on staff welfare, thus the management endeavors to show care and concern about the progress of the employees in their personal lives as well as in the workplaces. The leadership of the airline is outstanding, thus attracting many customers.

            For a number of years, the airline conducted several innovation activities, which went through three of phases. The innovation led to effective distribution of service and provision of innovative services and products, leading the company to be admired from all over the country. The strengths of the company especially in relation to fare charges from low cost of operation and having highly flexible flights have made the airline company to be outstanding, and to attract enormous customer base from all corners of the globe. The company has been experiencing sustainable growth because of great services it offers to its customers, thus boosting it to a position of the best airline in the country. The case study has observed that Southwest Airlines is among the most outstanding companies in United States, delivering its services more than fifty cities. The company has been very successful in its activities, but it is obvious that it has not explored all its opportunities. There is still much that needs to be done to lift the company performance such as integration of modern information and communication technology, amending the organizational policies that are personality based to be organizational based and expanding the services to other regions as well as sourcing for other types of airplanes.



Connerley, M. & Rynes, S. (1997). The influence of recruiter characteristics and organizational recruitment support on perceived recruiter effectiveness: Views from applicants and recruiters. Human Relations, Vol. 50(7): 1563-1586.

Gittell, J. (2005). The Southwest Airlines way: using the power of relationships to achieve high performance. Canada: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Kendall, K. (1997). The Significance of Information Systems Research on Emerging Technologies. Decision Sciences, Vol. 28(4): 775–792

Lauer, C. (2010). Southwest Airlines. Corporations That Changed the World. California: ABC-CLIO.

Robert, M. (1998).  Strategy Pure and Simple II. Canada: McGraw-Hill.


Center For Academic Research Corporations. All Rights Reserved.

Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse Aug 30 2011
Published by Admin under Dissertation, Thesis


Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Literature Review
Among the most disturbing and discussed concepts in the contemporary society is children abuse as well as the children rights. It is obvious that children are victims of maltreatment, either by their parents, relatives, teachers or other members of the society. There are diversified myths prevalent in the society, some of which have played significant roles in facilitating children abuse. One of the most common child abuses in the contemporary society is sexual abuse.
Friesen et al (2010, p. 679) conducted a study on relationship between sexual abuse on children and nature of intimate relationships, which the individual engage in at later life. The study explored nine-hundred adults from New Zealand. The findings of the study concluded that most of the individuals who experienced sexual abuses as children ended up cohabiting at an early age wit their partners (2010, p. 679). Moreover, the individuals engaged in violent activities with their romantic partners, with their relationships characterized by minimal satisfaction levels in their intimate relationships. The study also observed that the victims of child abuse had multiple relationships latter in life, especially during their adolescence. Women who had ever experienced child abuse during childhood had low or negative opinion about their partners. The study observed higher rates of separation and divorce among partners where one ever experienced sexual abuse as a child and there were more sexual difficulties among such people (2010, p. 679).
According to Zurbriggen and Freyd (2004), persons who have ever experienced childhood sexual abuse have limited capability of assessing the trustworthiness and genuineness of their sexual partners (p. 149). Such results to abuse relationships, or they become victims of greater sexual abuse from their partners. Zurbriggen and Freyd observed that such individuals tend to detach/dissociate themselves from their partners or might end up having limited trust upon their partners, which could affect their relationships. Zurbriggen and Freyd (2004, p. 149) have observed that among the common features in people who have ever experienced sexual abuse as children is distorted mindset, which might not be able to differentiate between reality and fantasy. Consequently, such persons settle for abusive sexual partners, ignoring the reality of the fact that the partners are abusive.
According to a study that was conducted by Speizer et al (2008), most of the women who have ever gone through sexual abuse as children end up in relationships where they are sexually abused (p. 460). Such findings indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) has greater prevalence among the women who were sexually abused during childhood than among women who never had such experiences. The survivors of sexual abuse develop a problem of trusting their sexual partners, and have a tendency of engaging in intimate relationships even when they don’t have trust upon their sexual partners (Oz & Ogiers, 2006, p. 56). Owing to the fact that they do not trust anyone, they never take time to assess their credibility of their sexual partners. Moreover, these individuals experience challenges in the endeavor to express their feelings to their partner, and in most cases they are characterized by low self-esteem, thus they seldom cultivate lasting intimate relationships. According to Oz and Ogiers, individuals who ever experienced childhood sexual abuse lack the basic building blocks of a relationship, which include communication, trust and sexuality (p. 56).
According to Oz and Ogiers (2006), the survivors of childhood sexual abuse lacks the capacity of standing in intimate relationships, because they feel undeserving. The two authors observed that in some other cases, the victims become inflexible an unwilling to accommodate the point-of-view of their partners since when they were children they did not get an opportunity to successfully stand against their offenders (p. 56). Mullen and Fleming (1998) have shared similar sentiments arguing that such individuals are not likely to succeed in their intimate relationships, thus they engage in disorganized relationships. Mullen and Fleming (1998) perceived that such individuals also experience communication challenges and are not able to share their problems with their partners. The survivors of childhood sexual abuse possess negative view about their partners and could term them as unconcerned and uncaring.
According to Smith (2008), women who have a history of childhood sexual abuse are likely to engage in unwanted sexual interactions even if their partners are not violent. This implies that such women are sexually compliant to their romantic partners even though they are not emotionally connected to their partners (p. 77). Such survivors have a tendency of accommodating romantic partners who are aggressive, who employs emotional manipulation in gaining sexual compliance. Smith further noted that the survivors have a reduced level of sexual satisfaction in their relationships, though they have a tendency of staying in the relationships even without the satisfaction (p. 80). Victims of childhood sexual abuse have a tendency of developing as well as internalizing shame, which make them fear of intimacy (Paludi & Denmark, 2010, p. 169).
According to Cherlin et al (2004, p. 770), women who have ever been sexually abused during their childhood have a higher probability of engaging in risky sexual relations. These individuals also start getting into sexual relationships early in life. Their intimate relationships are characterized by powerlessness and mistrust. The women survivors have lower levels of commitment in intimate relationships, despite of being legally married or being in cohabitation relationship (p. 770). The sexual abuse of children has effects on the quality of life, which they lead later in life. Abdulrehman and De Luca (2001, p. 200) shared the sentiments of Friesen et al (2010) that survivors of sexual abuse ends up in multiple relationships, most of which are short-term. Moreover, such persons tend to be withdrawn emotionally in their relationships, and they experience difficulties in their endeavor to express their emotional feelings to their partners. These individuals need many friends surrounding their social lives, but they experience pronounced challenges in their endeavor to express their emotional desires. They have limited trust on their friends also.
Majority of the existing literature directs their focus on the effects of childhood sexual abuse on women and their approach to intimate relationships. According to Andersen (2008, p. 51), men are equally affected by childhood sexual abuse and may have difficulties sharing such experiences with their future sexual partners. Equally like girls and women, boys and men also experience challenges in their quality of life as far as romantic life is concerned, if they were ever abused as children. Romano and Luca (1997) have noted that some of the men who were ever abused sexually could end up becoming sexual perpetrators, instead of initiating healthy sexual relationships (p. 85).
According to a study by O’Leary and Barber (2008), majority of the boys who are sexually abused do not reports such incidences, thus they end up wrecked, with little on no help at all, and thus they grow up having never received any intervention to help them overcome the implications. This is different for girls, because soonest they experience sexual abuse, they report the incidences to those they are related to, thus receiving the necessary help. Though receiving help is not a guarantee that they will not experience the implications latter in life, it is obvious that those who receive help (psychiatric and physical) are able to deal with the challenges better compared to their counterparts.
According to Dilorio et al. (2002, p. 217), men who were sexually abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors than those who did not have such experiences. Some men might engage in unwanted sexual interactions and tend to have multiple partners rather than committing to one romantic partner. Lenderking et al. (2002, p. 251) has posited that the bisexual and homosexual men who were sexually abused during their childhood could engage in lies to access sex and could also become pioneers of manipulative sexual relationships. According to Walker et al. (2009, p. 402), after studying about 16,000 people who are married via cohabiting concluded that the sexual abuses of childhood do not fade away with time, rather they are carried on to the victims’ adult life. According to Brennan et al (2007, p. 1107), who conducted a study on bisexual and gay me, it was observed that one out of seven interviewed men, one was sexually abused as a child. The study observed that the sexual behavior of those who were sexually harassed during childhood was affected by the childhood harassment. For example, men who had ever experienced childhood sexual abuse had nonconsensual sex with their partners (p. 111).
According to the works of Stream (1988, p. 465), adult who had sexual abuses in their childhood life grow with some negative perception about their bodies and do not perceive sexual pleasure in the same manner as those who had no such experiences: To them, sexual pleasures are a form of a taboo. According to Noll et al. (2003, p. 582), some of the people who experienced sexual abuse in childhood avoid sex for the rest of their lives: They loath it and might end up hating people who make sexual advances towards them. In case the sexual abuse was made by a relative or somebody who is close to them, they might be tempted to shun from any connection with the person, and incase the relationship between them continues, it is characterized by instability. Stream (1988) has observed that such instability in the relationships are caused by fear that if one becomes close to a relative, they might end up being hurt (p. 465).

Andersen, T, H. (2008). Men Dealing with Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Conditions and Possibilities of ‘Positive Deviance’. Journal of Social Work Practice. 22(1), pp. 51-65.
Cherlin, A, J., Burton, L, M., Hurt, T, R., & Purvin, D, M. (2004). The Influence of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Marriage and Cohabitation. American Sociological Review. 69(6), pp. 768-789.
Lenderking, W, R., Wold, C., & Mayer, K, H. (2002). Childhood Sexual Abuse among Homosexual Men; Prevalence and Association with Unsafe Sex. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 12(4), pp. 250-253
Paludi, M., & Denmark, F. (2010). Victims of Sexual Assault and Abuse: Resources and Responses for Individuals and Families Volume 1. ABC-CLIO.
Romano, E., & Luca, R, V. (1997). Exploring the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Perpetration. Journal of Family Violence. 12(1), pp. 85- 98.
Smith, M. J. (2008). Child Sexual Abuse: Issues and Challenges. Nova Publishers.
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